US State Code:United States CodeTITLE 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE


The Supreme Court of the United States shall consist of a Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, any six of whom shall constitute a quorum. ...


The Supreme Court shall hold at the seat of government a term of court commencing on the first Monday in October of each year and may hold such adjourned or special terms as may...


Whenever the Chief Justice is unable to perform the duties of his office or the office is vacant, his powers and duties shall devolve upon the associate justice next in precedence...


Associate justices shall have precedence according to the seniority of their commissions. Justices whose commissions bear the same date shall have precedence according to...


The Chief Justice and each associate justice shall each receive a salary at annual rates determined under section 225 of the Federal Salary Act of 1967 (2 U.S.C. 351-361), as...


The records and proceedings of the court of appeals, appointed previous to the adoption of the Constitution, shall be kept until deposited with the National Archives of the...


The thirteen judicial circuits of the United States are constituted as follows: ...


The Chief Justice of the United States and the associate justices of the Supreme Court shall from time to time be allotted as circuit justices among the circuits by order of...


(a) There shall be in each circuit a court of appeals, which shall be a court of record, known as the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit. (b) Each court of...


(a) The President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, circuit judges for the several circuits as follows: ...


(a)(1) The chief judge of the circuit shall be the circuit judge in regular active service who is senior in commission of those judges who - (A) are sixty-four years of age...


(a) Circuit judges shall sit on the court and its panels in such order and at such times as the court directs. (b) In each circuit the court may authorize the hearing and ...


No judge shall hear or determine an appeal from the decision of a case or issue tried by him. ...


(a) The courts of appeals shall hold regular sessions at the places listed below, and at such other places within the respective circuit as each court may designate by rule. ...


(a) Beginning with the two-year period commencing on the date of the enactment of this section, three judges or justices shall be assigned for each successive two-year period to...


Alabama is divided into three judicial districts to be known as the Northern, Middle, and Southern Districts of Alabama. NORTHERN DISTRICT (a)...


Alaska constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, Ketchikan, and Nome. ...


Arizona constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Globe, Phoenix, Prescott, and Tucson. ...


Arkansas is divided into two judicial districts to be known as the Eastern and Western Districts of Arkansas. EASTERN DISTRICT (a) The Eastern...


California is divided into four judicial districts to be known as the Northern, Eastern, Central, and Southern Districts of California. NORTHERN...


Colorado constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Boulder, Denver, Durango, Grand Junction, Montrose, Pueblo, and Sterling. ...


Connecticut constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Bridgeport, Hartford, New Haven, New London, and Waterbury. ...


Delaware constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Wilmington. ...


The District of Columbia constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Washington. ...


Florida is divided into three judicial districts to be known as the Northern, Middle, and Southern Districts of Florida. NORTHERN DISTRICT (a)...


Georgia is divided into three judicial districts to be known as the Northern, Middle, and Southern Districts of Georgia. NORTHERN DISTRICT (a)...


Hawaii constitutes one judicial district which includes the Midway Islands, Wake Island, Johnston Island, Sand Island, Kingman Reef, Palmyra Island, Baker Island, Howland...


Idaho, exclusive of Yellowstone National Park, constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Boise, Coeur d'Alene, Moscow, and Pocatello. ...


Illinois is divided into three judicial districts to be known as the Northern, Central, and Southern Districts of Illinois. NORTHERN DISTRICT (a)...


Indiana is divided into two judicial districts to be known as the Northern and Southern Districts of Indiana. NORTHERN DISTRICT (a) The...


Iowa is divided into two judicial districts to be known as the Northern and Southern Districts of Iowa. NORTHERN DISTRICT (a) The Northern...


Kansas constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Kansas City, Lawrence, Leavenworth, Salina, Topeka, Hutchinson, Wichita, Dodge City, and Fort ...


Kentucky is divided into two judicial districts to be known as the Eastern and Western Districts of Kentucky. EASTERN DISTRICT (a) The Eastern...


Louisiana is divided into three judicial districts to be known as the Eastern, Middle, and Western Districts of Louisiana. EASTERN DISTRICT (a)...


Maine constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Bangor and Portland. ...


Maryland constitutes one judicial district comprising two divisions. (1) The Northern Division comprises the counties of Allegany, Anne Arundel, Baltimore,...


Massachusetts constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Boston, New Bedford, Springfield, and Worcester. ...


Michigan is divided into two judicial districts to be known as the Eastern and Western Districts of Michigan. EASTERN DISTRICT (a) The Eastern...


Minnesota constitutes one judicial district comprising six divisions. (1) The First Division comprises the counties of Dodge, Fillmore, Houston, Mower,...


Mississippi is divided into two judicial districts to be known as the northern and southern districts of Mississippi. NORTHERN DISTRICT (a) The...


Missouri is divided into two judicial districts to be known as the Eastern and Western Districts of Missouri. EASTERN DISTRICT (a) The Eastern...


Montana, exclusive of Yellowstone National Park, constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Billings, Butte, Glasgow, Great Falls, Havre,...


Nebraska constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Lincoln, North Platte, and Omaha. ...


Nevada constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Carson City, Elko, Las Vegas, Reno, Ely, and Lovelock. ...


New Hampshire constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Concord and Littleton. ...


New Jersey constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Camden, Newark and Trenton. ...


New Mexico constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Albuquerque, Las Cruces, Las Vegas, Roswell, Santa Fe, and Silver City. ...


New York is divided into four judicial districts to be known as the Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Districts of New York. NORTHERN DISTRICT ...


North Carolina is divided into three judicial districts to be known as the Eastern, Middle, and Western Districts of North Carolina. EASTERN DISTRICT ...


North Dakota constitutes one judicial district comprising four divisions. (1) The Southwestern Division comprises the counties of Adams, Billings, Bowman,...


Ohio is divided into two judicial districts to be known as the Northern and Southern Districts of Ohio. NORTHERN DISTRICT (a) The Northern...


Oklahoma is divided into three judicial districts to be known as the Northern, Eastern, and Western Districts of Oklahoma. NORTHERN DISTRICT (a)...


Oregon constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Coquille, Eugene or Springfield, Klamath Falls, Medford, Pendleton, and Portland. ...


Pennsylvania is divided into three judicial districts to be known as the Eastern, Middle, and Western Districts of Pennsylvania. EASTERN DISTRICT ...


Puerto Rico constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Mayaguez, Ponce, and San Juan. ...


Rhode Island constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Providence. ...


South Carolina constitutes one judicial district comprising eleven divisions. (1) The Charleston Division comprises the counties of Berkeley, Charleston,...


South Dakota constitutes one judicial district comprising four divisions. (1) The Northern Division comprises the counties of Brown, Campbell, Clark,...


Tennessee is divided into three judicial districts to be known as the Eastern, Middle, and Western Districts of Tennessee. EASTERN DISTRICT (a)...


Texas is divided into four judicial districts to be known as the Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Districts of Texas. NORTHERN DISTRICT (a)...


Utah constitutes one judicial district comprising two divisions. (1) The Northern Division comprises the counties of Box Elder, Cache, Davis, Morgan, Rich, and Weber. ...


Vermont constitutes one judicial district. Court shall be held at Bennington, Brattleboro, Burlington, Montpelier, Rutland, Saint Johnsbury, and Windsor. ...


Virginia is divided into two judicial districts, to be known as the Eastern and Western districts of Virginia. EASTERN DISTRICT (a) The...


Washington is divided into two judicial districts to be known as the Eastern and Western Districts of Washington. EASTERN DISTRICT (a) The...


West Virginia is divided into two judicial districts to be known as the Northern and Southern Districts of West Virginia. NORTHERN DISTRICT (a)...


Wisconsin is divided into two judicial districts to be known as the Eastern and Western districts of Wisconsin. EASTERN DISTRICT (a) The...


Wyoming and those portions of Yellowstone National Park situated in Montana and Idaho constitute one judicial district. Court shall be held at Casper, Cheyenne, Evanston,...


(a) There shall be in each judicial district a district court which shall be a court of record known as the United States District Court for the district. (b) Each...


(a) The President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, district judges for the several judicial districts, as follows: ...


(a) The district judges shall hold office during good behavior. (b) Each district judge, except in the District of Columbia, the Southern District of New York, and the...


Each judge of a district court of the United States shall receive a salary at an annual rate determined under section 225 of the Federal Salary Act of 1967 (2 U.S.C. 351-361),...


(a)(1) In any district having more than one district judge, the chief judge of the district shall be the district judge in regular active service who is senior in commission of...


The business of a court having more than one judge shall be divided among the judges as provided by the rules and orders of the court. The chief judge of the district...


The district court shall not hold formal terms. ...


The times for commencing regular sessions of the district court for transacting judicial business at the places fixed by this chapter shall be determined by the rules or orders of...


(a) Any district court may, by order made anywhere within its district, adjourn or, with the consent of the judicial council of the circuit, pretermit any regular session of...


Special sessions of the district court may be held at such places in the district as the nature of the business may require, and upon such notice as the court orders. ...


...


When the office of a district judge becomes vacant, all pending process, pleadings and proceedings shall, when necessary, be continued by the clerk until a judge is appointed...


Whenever a party to any proceeding in a district court makes and files a timely and sufficient affidavit that the judge before whom the matter is pending has a personal bias...


In each judicial district, the bankruptcy judges in regular active service shall constitute a unit of the district court to be known as the bankruptcy court for that district....


(a)(1) The United States court of appeals for the circuit shall appoint bankruptcy judges for the judicial districts established in paragraph (2) in such numbers as are established...


(a) Each bankruptcy judge shall serve on a full-time basis and shall receive as full compensation for his services, a salary at an annual rate that is equal to 92 percent of...


(a) Each bankruptcy court for a district having more than one bankruptcy judge shall by majority vote promulgate rules for the division of business among the bankruptcy judges to...


(a) A bankruptcy judge may be transferred to serve temporarily as a bankruptcy judge in any judicial district other than the judicial district for which such bankruptcy judge...


(a) Each bankruptcy judge may appoint a secretary, a law clerk, and such additional assistants as the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts determines...


(a) Each district court may provide that any or all cases under title 11 and any or all proceedings arising under title 11 or arising in or related to a case under title 11 shall...


(a) The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to hear appeals (FOOTNOTE 1) (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original. Probably should be followed by a dash. ...


(a) The President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, sixteen judges who shall constitute a court of record known as the United States Court of...


(a) Each judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims shall be appointed for a term of fifteen years. (b) Each judge shall receive a salary at the rate of pay, and in ...


The principal office of the United States Court of Federal Claims shall be in the District of Columbia, but the Court of Federal Claims may hold court at such times and in such...


(a) The judicial power of the United States Court of Federal Claims with respect to any action, suit, or proceeding, except congressional reference cases, shall be exercised by...


(a) The official duty station of each judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims is the District of Columbia. (b) After appointment and while in active service, each judge ...


(a) Removal of a judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims during the term for which he is appointed shall be only for incompetency, misconduct, neglect of duty, engaging...


A judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims removed from office in accordance with section 176 of this title shall not be permitted at any time to practice before the...


(a) A judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims who retires from office after attaining the age and meeting the service requirements, whether continuously or otherwise,...


(a) For purposes of construing and applying title 5, a judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims shall be deemed to be an ''officer'' under section 2104(a) of such title. ...


...


(a) The President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, nine judges who shall constitute a court of record to be known as the United States Court...


Judges of the Court of International Trade shall hold office during good behavior. Each shall receive a salary at an annual rate determined under section 225 of the Federal...


(a) The chief judge of the Court of International Trade, with the approval of the court, shall supervise the fiscal affairs and clerical force of the court; (FOOTNOTE 1) ...


Except as otherwise provided in section 255 of this title, the judicial power of the Court of International Trade with respect to any action, suit or proceeding shall be exercised...


(a) Upon application of any party to a civil action, or upon his own initiative, the chief judge of the Court of International Trade shall designate any three judges of the court...


(a) The chief judge may designate any judge or judges of the court to proceed, together with necessary assistants, to any port or to any place within the jurisdiction of the...


All decisions of the Court of International Trade shall be preserved and open to inspection. The court shall forward copies of each decision to the Secretary of the Treasury or...


(a)(1) The chief judge of the Court of International Trade shall be the judge of the court in regular active service who is senior in commission of those judges who - (A)...


(a) The Chief Justice of the United States may, in the public interest, designate and assign temporarily any circuit judge to act as circuit judge in another circuit upon request...


(a) The chief judge of a circuit may designate and assign one or more district judges within the circuit to sit upon the court of appeals or a division thereof whenever the...


(a) (FOOTNOTE 1) The Chief Justice of the United States may designate and assign temporarily any judge of the Court of International Trade to perform judicial duties in any circuit, ...


(a) Any retired Chief Justice of the United States or Associate Justice of the Supreme Court may be designated and assigned by the Chief Justice of the United States to perform...


No designation and assignment of a circuit or district judge in active service shall be made without the consent of the chief judge or judicial council of the circuit from which...


A justice or judge shall discharge, during the period of his designation and assignment, all judicial duties for which he is designated and assigned. He may be required to...


(a) The Chief Justice or the chief judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit may assign any circuit or district judge of the Ninth Circuit, with the consent...


The Chief Justice of the United States shall summon annually the chief judge of each judicial circuit, the chief judge of the Court of International Trade, and a district judge...


(a)(1) The chief judge of each judicial circuit shall call, at least twice in each year and at such places as he or she may designate, a meeting of the judicial council of...


The chief judge of each circuit may summon biennially, and may summon annually, the circuit, district, and bankruptcy judges of the circuit, in active service, to a conference at...


(a) In the interest of uniformity in sentencing procedures, there is hereby authorized to be established under the auspices of the Judicial Conference of the United States,...


(a) The chief judge of the Court of International Trade is authorized to summon annually the judges of such court to a judicial conference, at a time and place that such chief judge ...


(a) Any justice or judge of the United States appointed to hold office during good behavior may retire from the office after attaining the age and meeting the service...


(a) Any justice or judge of the United States appointed to hold office during good behavior who becomes permanently disabled from performing his duties may retire from regular...


(a) Any judge of the District Court of Guam, the District Court of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the District Court of the Virgin Islands who retires from office after...


Retired judges of the United States are not subject to restrictions as to residence. The place where a retired judge maintains the actual abode in which he customarily lives...


(a)(1) A bankruptcy judge or a United States magistrate judge appointed under chapter 43 of this title, who has retired under the provisions of section 377 of this title or under...


(a) For the purposes of this section - (1) ''judicial official'' means: (A) a Justice or judge of the United States, as defined by section 451 of this title; ...


(a) Retirement Based on Years of Service. - A bankruptcy judge or magistrate judge to whom this section applies and who retires from office after attaining the age of 65 years...


(a) The decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States shall be printed, bound, and distributed in the preliminary prints and bound volumes of the United States Reports as...


The Public Printer, or other printer designated by the Supreme Court of the United States shall print such additional bound volumes and preliminary prints of such reports as may...


Distribution of publications to Federal courts in accordance with the provisions of this chapter shall not be made to any place where such court is held in a building not owned...


All government publications and law books furnished to justices, judges, clerks of courts, and United States attorneys of the United States and its territories and possessions,...


...


As used in this title: The term ''court of the United States'' includes the Supreme Court of the United States, courts of appeals, district courts constituted by chapter 5...


All courts of the United States shall be deemed always open for the purpose of filing proper papers, issuing and returning process, and making motions and orders. The...


Each justice or judge of the United States shall take the following oath or affirmation before performing the duties of his office: ''I, _ _ _ _ _ _, do solemnly swear (or...


Any justice or judge appointed under the authority of the United States who engages in the practice of law is guilty of a high misdemeanor. ...


(a) Any justice, judge, or magistrate judge of the United States shall disqualify himself in any proceeding in which his impartiality might reasonably be questioned. (b)...


(a) The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall pay each justice or judge of the United States, and each retired justice or judge recalled...


The records of district courts and of courts of appeals shall be kept at one or more of the places where court is held. Such places shall be designated by the respective...


(a)(1) No person shall be appointed to or employed in any office or duty in any court who is related by affinity or consanguinity within the degree of first cousin to any justice...


Each justice or judge of the United States may administer oaths and affirmations and take acknowledgments. ...


(a) Sections 452 through 459 and section 462 of this chapter shall also apply to the United States Court of Federal Claims, to each court created by Act of Congress in a...


(a)(1) Subject to paragraph (2), effective at the beginning of the first applicable pay period commencing on or after the first day of the month in which an adjustment takes...


(a) Sessions of courts of the United States (except the Supreme Court) shall be held only at places where the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States...


Whenever a Chief Justice, justice, judge, officer, or employee of any United States court is sued in his official capacity, or is otherwise required to defend acts taken or...


There shall be implemented by each United States district court, in accordance with this chapter, a civil justice expense and delay reduction plan. The plan may be a plan...


(a) The civil justice expense and delay reduction plan implemented by a district court shall be developed or selected, as the case may be, after consideration of the...


(a) In formulating the provisions of its civil justice expense and delay reduction plan, each United States district court, in consultation with an advisory group appointed...


(a)(1) The chief judge of each district court in a circuit and the chief judge of the circuit shall, as a committee - (A) review each plan and report submitted pursuant...


After developing or selecting a civil justice expense and delay reduction plan, each United States district court shall assess annually the condition of the court's civil and...


(a) The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall prepare a semiannual report, available to the public, that discloses for each judicial officer - ...


(a)(1) Based on the plans developed and implemented by the United States district courts designated as Early Implementation District Courts pursuant to section 103(c) of the...


(a) Within ninety days after the date of the enactment of this chapter, the advisory group required in each United States district court in accordance with section 472 of this...


(a) Within four years after the date of the enactment of this chapter, the Judicial Conference of the United States shall prepare a comprehensive report on all plans received...


The Director of the Federal Judicial Center and the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall develop and conduct comprehensive education and...


(a) The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall ensure that each United States district court has the automated capability readily to...


As used in this chapter, the term ''judicial officer'' means a United States district court judge or a United States magistrate judge. ...


The Department of Justice is an executive department of the United States at the seat of Government. ...


The Attorney General shall have a seal for the Department of Justice. The design of the seal is subject to the approval of the President. ...


The President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, an Attorney General of the United States. The Attorney General is the head of the Department...


The President may appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, a Deputy Attorney General. ...


The President may appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, an Associate Attorney General. ...


The President shall appoint in the Department of Justice, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, a Solicitor General, learned in the law, to assist the Attorney General...


The President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, ten Assistant Attorneys General, who shall assist the Attorney General in the performance of...


(a) The Attorney General shall appoint, with the approval of the President, an Assistant Attorney General for Administration, who shall perform such duties as the Attorney General...


(a) In case of a vacancy in the office of Attorney General, or of his absence or disability, the Deputy Attorney General may exercise all the duties of that office, and for...


All functions of other officers of the Department of Justice and all functions of agencies and employees of the Department of Justice are vested in the Attorney General except...


The Attorney General may from time to time make such provisions as he considers appropriate authorizing the performance by any other officer, employee, or agency of the Department...


The Attorney General shall give his advice and opinion on questions of law when required by the President. ...


The head of an executive department may require the opinion of the Attorney General on questions of law arising in the administration of his department. ...


When a question of law arises in the administration of the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, or the Department of the Air Force, the cognizance of which is...


When the head of an executive department or agency is of the opinion that the interests of the United States require the service of counsel on the examination of any...


(a) The Attorney General or any other officer of the Department of Justice, or any attorney specially appointed by the Attorney General under law, may, when specifically directed...


Except as otherwise authorized by law, the conduct of litigation in which the United States, an agency, or officer thereof is a party, or is interested, and securing...


The Solicitor General, or any officer of the Department of Justice, may be sent by the Attorney General to any State or district in the United States to attend to the interests...


(a) Except when the Attorney General in a particular case directs otherwise, the Attorney General and the Solicitor General shall conduct and argue suits and appeals in the...


Except as otherwise authorized by law, the Attorney General shall supervise all litigation to which the United States, an agency, or officer thereof is a party, and shall direct...


(a) In suits against the United States in the United States Court of Federal Claims or in the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit founded on a contract,...


The Attorney General, from time to time - (1) shall cause to be edited, and printed in the Government Printing Office, such of his opinions as he considers valuable ...


The Attorney General, by April 1 of each year, shall report to Congress on the business of the Department of Justice for the last preceding fiscal year, and on any other...


The Attorney General shall sign all requisitions for the advance or payment of moneys appropriated for the Department of Justice, out of the Treasury, subject to the same control...


(a) Appropriations for the Department of Justice are available for payment of - (1) notarial fees, including such additional stenographic services as are required...


In the procurement of law books, reference books, and periodicals, the Attorney General may exchange or sell similar items and apply the exchange allowances or proceeds of such...


(a) The Attorney General may investigate the official acts, records, and accounts of - (1) the United States attorneys, marshals,, (FOOTNOTE 1) trustees, including...


There is hereby authorized to be established a working capital fund for the Department of Justice, which shall be available, without fiscal year limitation, for expenses...


The Attorney General shall promulgate rules and regulations which require the disqualification of any officer or employee of the Department of Justice, including a United...


Beginning on June 1, 1979, and at the beginning of each regular session of Congress thereafter, the Attorney General shall report to Congress on the activities and operations of...


The Attorney General or the Attorney General's designee is authorized to pay the travel expenses of newly appointed special agents and the transportation expenses of their...


There are authorized to be appropriated, for any fiscal year, for the Department of Justice, such sums as may be necessary - (1) for travel and related expenses of employees...


(a) An attorney for the Government shall be subject to State laws and rules, and local Federal court rules, governing attorneys in each State where such attorney engages in...


The Federal Bureau of Investigation is in the Department of Justice. ...


The Attorney General may appoint a Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is the head of the Federal Bureau...


The Attorney General may appoint officials - (1) to detect and prosecute crimes against the United States; (2) to assist in the protection of the person of the President; ...


(a) The Attorney General shall - (1) acquire, collect, classify, and preserve identification, criminal identification, crime, and other records; (2) acquire,...


(a) The Attorney General and the Federal Bureau of Investigation may investigate any violation of title 18 involving Government officers and employees - (1)...


All positions in the Federal Bureau of Investigation are excepted from the competitive service, and the incumbents of such positions occupy positions in the excepted service. ...


Appropriations for the Federal Bureau of Investigation are available for expenses of unforeseen emergencies of a confidential character, when so specified in the...


The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall investigate any violation of section 46314 or chapter 465 of title 49. ...


The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation may use funds available to the Federal Bureau of Investigation for counterintelligence programs to pay the expenses of...


The Attorney General and the Federal Bureau of Investigation may investigate felonious killings of officials and employees of a State or political subdivision thereof while engaged...


(a) In General. - At the request of an appropriate law enforcement official of a State or political subdivision, the Attorney General and Director of the Federal Bureau of ...


(a) In General. - The Attorney General and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation may investigate serial killings in violation of the laws of a State or...


(a) The President shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, a United States attorney for each judicial district. (b) Each United States attorney shall...


(a) The Attorney General may appoint one or more assistant United States attorneys in any district when the public interest so requires. (b) Each assistant United...


(a) The Attorney General may appoint attorneys to assist United States attorneys when the public interest so requires. (b) Each attorney appointed under this section is subject to ...


Each United States attorney, assistant United States attorney, and attorney appointed under section 543 of this title, before taking office, shall take an oath to execute...


(a) Each United States attorney shall reside in the district for which he is appointed, except that these officers of the District of Columbia, the Southern District of New York,...


(a) Except as provided in subsection (b), the Attorney General may appoint a United States attorney for the district in which the office of United States attorney is vacant. ...


Except as otherwise provided by law, each United States attorney, within his district, shall - (1) prosecute for all offenses against the United States; (2) prosecute...


Subject to sections 5315 through 5317 of title 5, the Attorney General shall fix the annual salaries of United States attorneys, assistant United States attorneys, and...


Necessary office expenses of United States attorneys shall be allowed when authorized by the Attorney General. ...


The United States attorneys may employ clerical assistants, messengers, and private process servers on approval of the Attorney General. ...


(a) There is hereby established a United States Marshals Service as a bureau within the Department of Justice under the authority and direction of the Attorney General. There shall...


(a) In the case of a vacancy in the office of a United States marshal, the Attorney General may designate a person to perform the functions of and act as marshal, except that...


The Director and each United States marshal and law enforcement officer of the Service, before taking office, shall take an oath or affirmation to faithfully execute the duties...


United States marshals, deputy marshals and such other officials of the Service as may be designated by the Director, in executing the laws of the United States within a State,...


The Director is authorized to use funds appropriated for the Service to make payments for expenses incurred pursuant to personal services contracts and cooperative...


(a) It is the primary role and mission of the United States Marshals Service to provide for the security and to obey, execute, and enforce all orders of the United States...


(a) Each United States marshal shall collect, as far as possible, his lawful fees and account for the same as public moneys. (b) The marshal's accounts of fees and costs paid to...


A United States marshal or deputy marshal may not practice law in any court of the United States. ...


(a) A United States marshal for a judicial district who was appointed from a position in the competitive service (as defined in section 2102 of title 5) in the United States...


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(a) The Attorney General shall appoint one United States trustee for each of the following regions composed of Federal judicial districts (without regard to section 451): ...


(a) The Attorney General may appoint one or more assistant United States trustees in any region when the public interest so requires. (b) Each assistant United States trustee...


Each United States trustee and assistant United States trustee, before taking office, shall take an oath to execute faithfully his duties. ...


The Attorney General may determine the official stations of the United States trustees and assistant United States trustees within the regions for which they were appointed. ...


(a) The Attorney General may appoint an acting United States trustee for a region in which the office of the United States trustee is vacant. The individual so appointed may...


(a) Each United States trustee, within the region for which such United States trustee is appointed, shall - (1) establish, maintain, and supervise a panel of private ...


Subject to sections 5315 through 5317 of title 5, the Attorney General shall fix the annual salaries of United States trustees and assistant United States trustees at rates...


Necessary office expenses of the United States trustee shall be allowed when authorized by the Attorney General. ...


The United States trustee may employ staff and other employees on approval of the Attorney General. ...


(a) There is hereby established in the Treasury of the United States a special fund to be known as the ''United States Trustee System Fund'' (hereinafter in this section referred...


(a) Preliminary Investigation With Respect to Certain Covered Persons. - The Attorney General shall conduct a preliminary investigation in accordance with section 592 whenever...


(a) Conduct of Preliminary Investigation. - (1) In general. - A preliminary investigation conducted under this chapter shall be of such matters as the Attorney General ...


(a) Reference to Division of the Court. - The division of the court to which this chapter refers is the division established under section 49 of this title. (b) Appointment...


(a) Authorities. - Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an independent counsel appointed under this chapter shall have, with respect to all matters in such...


(a) Oversight of Conduct of Independent Counsel. - (1) Congressional oversight. - The appropriate committees of the Congress shall have oversight jurisdiction with respect to ...


(a) Removal; Report on Removal. - (1) Grounds for removal. - An independent counsel appointed under this chapter may be removed from office, other than by impeachment...


(a) Suspension of Other Investigations and Proceedings. - Whenever a matter is in the prosecutorial jurisdiction of an independent counsel or has been accepted by an...


If any provision of this chapter or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of this chapter and the application of such provision to...


This chapter shall cease to be effective five years after the date of the enactment of the Independent Counsel Reauthorization Act of 1994, except that this chapter shall continue...


The Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall be maintained at the seat of government. It shall be supervised by a Director and a Deputy Director appointed and...


(a) The Director shall appoint and fix the compensation of necessary employees of the Administrative Office in accordance with the Administrative Office of the United States...


The salary of the Director shall be the same as the salary of a district judge. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Director shall not be deemed to be an ''employee''...


(a) The Director shall be the administrative officer of the courts, and under the supervision and direction of the Judicial Conference of the United States, shall: ...


The Director, under the supervision of the Judicial Conference of the United States, shall submit to the Office of Management and Budget annual estimates of the expenditures...


The Deputy Director shall perform the duties assigned to him by the Director, and shall act as Director during the absence or incapacity of the Director or when the Director's...


An officer or employee of the Administrative Office shall not engage directly or indirectly in the practice of law in any court of the United States. ...


The Director shall use a seal approved by the Supreme Court. Judicial notice shall be taken of such seal. ...


The authority of the courts to appoint their own administrative or clerical personnel shall not be limited by any provisions of this chapter. ...


As used in this chapter the word ''courts'' includes the courts of appeals and district courts of the United States, the United States District Court for the District of the...


(a) The Director may, by written election filed with the Chief Justice of the United States within 6 months after the date on which he takes office, waive coverage under chapter 83...


(a) Establishment and Availability of Fund. - There is hereby established in the Treasury of the United States a special fund to be known as the ''Judiciary Information...


(a) Disbursing Officers. - The Director may designate in writing officers and employees of the judicial branch of the Government, including the courts as defined in section 610...


(a) There is established within the judicial branch of the Government a Federal Judicial Center, whose purpose it shall be to further the development and adoption of...


(a) The activities of the Center shall be supervised by a Board to be composed of - (1) the Chief Justice of the United States, who shall be the permanent Chairman of...


(a) Regular meetings of the Board shall be held quarterly. Special meetings shall be held from time to time upon the call of the Chairman, acting at his own discretion or pursuant...


(a) In its direction and supervision of the activities of the Federal Judicial Center, the Board shall - (1) establish such policies and develop such programs for the ...


The Board is authorized - (1) to appoint and fix the duties of the Director and the Deputy Director of the Federal Judicial Center, who shall serve at the pleasure of...


(a) The Director shall supervise the activities of persons employed by the Center and perform other duties assigned to him by the Board. (b) The Director shall appoint and...


The compensation of the Director of the Federal Judicial Center shall be the same as that of the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, and his...


(a) The Director, Deputy Director, the professional staff, and the clerical and secretarial employees of the Federal Judicial Center shall be deemed to be officers and employees...


There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter. The Administrative Office of the United States Courts...


(a) There is established a private nonprofit corporation which shall be known as the Federal Judicial Center Foundation (hereafter in this section referred to as the...


(a) The judges of each United States district court and the district courts of the Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands shall appoint United States magistrate...


(a) Full-time United States magistrate judges may not engage in the practice of law, and may not engage in any other business, occupation, or employment inconsistent with...


(a) Surveys by the Director. - (1) The Director shall, within one year immediately following the date of the enactment of the Federal Magistrates Act, make a careful survey...


(a) Officers appointed under this chapter shall receive, as full compensation for their services, salaries to be fixed by the conference pursuant to section 633, at rates...


(a) Full-time United States magistrate judges serving under this chapter shall be allowed their actual and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of their duties,...


(a) Each United States magistrate judge serving under this chapter shall have within the territorial jurisdiction prescribed by his appointment - (1) all powers and...


The Federal Judicial Center shall conduct periodic training programs and seminars for both full-time and part-time United States magistrate judges, including an introductory...


(a) The Director shall furnish to United States magistrate judges adequate docket books and forms prescribed by the Director. The Director shall also furnish to each such officer...


As used in this chapter - (1) ''Conference'' shall mean the Judicial Conference of the United States; (2) ''Council'' shall mean the Judicial Council of the Circuit; ...


(a) Definition. - For purposes of this chapter, an alternative dispute resolution process includes any process or procedure, other than an adjudication by a presiding judge, in...


(a) Consideration of Alternative Dispute Resolution in Appropriate Cases. - Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary and except as provided in subsections (b) and...


(a) Panel of Neutrals. - Each district court that authorizes the use of alternative dispute resolution processes shall adopt appropriate processes for making neutrals available...


(a) Referral of Actions to Arbitration. - Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary and except as provided in subsections (a), (b), and (c) of section 652 and...


(a) Powers of Arbitrators. - An arbitrator to whom an action is referred under section 654 shall have the power, within the judicial district of the district court which referred...


Rule 45 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (relating to subpoenas) applies to subpoenas for the attendance of witnesses and the production of documentary evidence at...


(a) Filing and Effect of Arbitration Award. - An arbitration award made by an arbitrator under this chapter, along with proof of service of such award on the other party by...


(a) Compensation. - The district court shall, subject to regulations approved by the Judicial Conference of the United States, establish the amount of compensation, if any, that...


(a) The Supreme Court may appoint and fix the compensation of a clerk and one or more deputy clerks. The clerk shall be subject to removal by the Court. Deputy clerks shall...


(a) The Supreme Court may appoint a marshal, who shall be subject to removal by the Court, and may fix his compensation. (b) The marshal may, with the approval of the Chief...


(a) The Supreme Court may appoint and fix the compensation of a reporter of its decisions who shall be subject to removal by the Court. (b) The reporter may appoint and fix...


(a) The Supreme Court may appoint a librarian, whose salary it shall fix, and who shall be subject to removal by the Court. (b) The librarian shall, with the approval of the...


The Chief Justice of the United States, and the associate justices of the Supreme Court may appoint law clerks and secretaries whose salaries shall be fixed by the Court. ...


(a) The printing and binding for the Supreme Court, including the printing and binding of individual copies, advance pamphlet installments, and bound volumes, of its...


(a) The Chief Justice of the United States may appoint an Administrative Assistant who shall serve at the pleasure of the Chief Justice and shall perform such duties as may...


(a) Each court of appeals may appoint a clerk who shall be subject to removal by the court. (b) The clerk, with the approval of the court, may appoint necessary...


Circuit judges may appoint necessary law clerks and secretaries. A law clerk appointed under this section shall be exempt from the provisions of subchapter I of chapter 63 of title...


(a) Each court of appeals may appoint a librarian who shall be subject to removal by the court. (b) The librarian, with the approval of the court, may appoint necessary...


(a) Each court of appeals may appoint a crier who shall be subject to removal by the court. (b) The crier, with the approval of the court, may appoint necessary messengers...


(a) The chief judge of each court of appeals, with the approval of the court, may appoint a senior staff attorney, who shall be subject to removal by the chief judge with the...


(a) Each district court may appoint a clerk who shall be subject to removal by the court. (b) The clerk may appoint, with the approval of the court, necessary deputies,...


District judges may appoint necessary law clerks and secretaries subject to any limitation on the aggregate salaries of such employees which may be imposed by law. A law...


(a) Each district court of the United States, the United States District Court for the District of the Canal Zone, the District Court of Guam, and the District Court of the...


A receiver appointed in any civil action or proceeding involving property, real, personal or mixed, situated in different districts shall, upon giving bond as required by the...


Each district judge may appoint a crier for the court in which he presides who shall perform also the duties of bailiff and messenger. A crier may perform also the duties of...


Whenever a majority of the district judges of any district court cannot agree upon the appointment of any officer of such court, the chief judge shall make such appointment. ...


(a) The United States Court of Federal Claims may appoint a clerk, who shall be subject to removal by the court. The clerk, with the approval of the court, may appoint...


...


...


The judges of the United States Court of Federal Claims may appoint necessary law clerks and secretaries, in such numbers as the Judicial Conference of the United States may...


The chief judge of (FOOTNOTE 1) United States Court of Federal Claims, with the approval of the court, may appoint necessary bailiffs and messengers, in such numbers as the...


Subject to the approval of the United States Court of Federal Claims, the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts is authorized to contract for the...


(a)(1) Any judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims who has retired from regular active service under subchapter III of chapter 83, or chapter 84, of title 5 shall be...


(a) The United States Court of Federal Claims is authorized to use facilities and hold court in Washington, District of Columbia, and throughout the United States (including...


The Court of International Trade may appoint a clerk, a chief deputy clerk, an assistant clerk, deputy clerks, and such deputies, assistants, and other employees as may be...


The Court of International Trade may appoint such criers as it may require for said court, which criers shall also perform the duties of bailiffs and messengers and such other...


...


Each clerk of court and his deputies shall take the following oath or affirmation before entering upon their duties: ''I, _ _ _ _ _ _, having been appointed _ _ _, do solemnly...


...


Each clerk of court and his deputies may administer oaths and affirmations and take acknowledgments. ...


When the office of clerk is vacant, the deputy clerks shall perform the duties of the clerk in the name of the last person who held that office. When the clerk is...


The clerk of each court and his deputies and assistants shall not practice law in any court of the United States. ...


The clerk of each court and his deputies and assistants shall exercise the powers and perform the duties assigned to them by the court. ...


A clerk of a court or any of his deputies shall not be appointed a commissioner, master, referee or receiver in any case, unless there are special reasons requiring such...


A person holding any civil or military office or employment under the United States or employed by any justice or judge of the United States shall not at the same time be appointed...


(a) Trustees, receivers or managers of any property, including debtors in possession, may be sued, without leave of the court appointing them, with respect to any of their acts...


Any officers and agents conducting any business under authority of a United States court shall be subject to all Federal, State and local taxes applicable to such business to the...


Each clerk of court shall be allowed his necessary office expenses when authorized by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. ...


...


As used in this chapter, unless the context indicates otherwise, the words ''court'' and ''courts'' include the Supreme Court of the United States and the courts enumerated in...


(a) There is established as an independent commission in the judicial branch of the United States a United States Sentencing Commission which shall consist of seven voting members...


(a) The voting members of the United States Sentencing Commission shall be appointed for six-year terms, except that the initial terms of the first members of the Commission shall...


The Chair shall - (a) call and preside at meetings of the Commission, which shall be held for at least two weeks in each quarter after the members of the Commission...


(a) The Commission, by affirmative vote of at least four members of the Commission, and pursuant to its rules and regulations and consistent with all pertinent provisions of...


(a) The Commission, by vote of a majority of the members present and voting, shall have the power to - (1) establish general policies and promulgate such rules and ...


(a) The Staff Director shall supervise the activities of persons employed by the Commission and perform other duties assigned to the Staff Director by the Commission. (b)...


The Commission shall report annually to the Judicial Conference of the United States, the Congress, and the President of the United States on the activities of the Commission. ...


As used in this chapter - (a) ''Commission'' means the United States Sentencing Commission; (b) ''Commissioner'' means a member of the United States ...


(a) The Supreme Court shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction of all controversies between two or more States. (b) The Supreme Court shall have original but not exclusive ...


...


Except as otherwise provided by law, any party may appeal to the Supreme Court from an order granting or denying, after notice and hearing, an interlocutory or permanent injunction...


Cases in the courts of appeals may be reviewed by the Supreme Court by the following methods: (1) By writ of certiorari granted upon the petition of any party to any...


...


(a) Final judgments or decrees rendered by the highest court of a State in which a decision could be had, may be reviewed by the Supreme Court by writ of certiorari where the...


Final judgments or decrees rendered by the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico may be reviewed by the Supreme Court by writ of certiorari where the validity of a...


Decisions of the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces may be reviewed by the Supreme Court by writ of certiorari in the following cases: (1) Cases reviewed...


The courts of appeals (other than the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit) shall have jurisdiction of appeals from all final decisions of the district courts of...


(a) Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d) of this section, the courts of appeals shall have jurisdiction of appeals from: (1) Interlocutory orders of the...


...


Except as provided in sections 1292(c), 1292(d), and 1295 of this title, appeals from reviewable decisions of the district and territorial courts shall be taken to the courts...


(a) The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall have exclusive jurisdiction - (1) of an appeal from a final decision of a district court of the...


(a) Jurisdiction. - Subject to the provisions of chapter 179, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit shall have jurisdiction over a petition for review of a...


(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction without regard to amount in controversy of any nonjury civil action against a foreign state as defined in section 1603(a)...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States. ...


(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions where the matter in controversy exceeds the sum or value of $75,000, exclusive of interest and costs,...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of: (1) Any civil case of admiralty or maritime jurisdiction, saving to...


(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the district courts shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction of all cases under title 11. (b) Notwithstanding...


(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action of interpleader or in the nature of interpleader filed by any person, firm, or corporation,...


(a) Except as otherwise provided by Act of Congress, the district courts shall have jurisdiction of any civil action to enforce, in whole or in part, any order of the...


(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action or proceeding arising under any Act of Congress regulating commerce or protecting trade and...


(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action arising under any Act of Congress relating to patents, plant variety protection, copyrights...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action arising under any Act of Congress relating to the postal service. ...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action arising under any Act of Congress providing for internal revenue, or revenue from imports or tonnage...


The district courts shall not enjoin, suspend or restrain the assessment, levy or collection of any tax under State law where a plain, speedy and efficient remedy may be had in...


The district courts shall not enjoin, suspend or restrain the operation of, or compliance with, any order affecting rates chargeable by a public utility and made by a...


(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action authorized by law to be commenced by any person: (1) To recover damages for injury to his person...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action to recover possession of any office, except that of elector of President or Vice President, United...


Except as otherwise provided by Act of Congress, the district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions, suits or proceedings commenced by the United States, or...


(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, concurrent with the United States Court of Federal Claims, of: (1) Any civil action against the United States for...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action commenced by any tenant in common or joint tenant for the partition of lands where the United States is one...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action commenced by the United States, or by direction of any officer thereof, against any national...


The district courts shall not have jurisdiction of any civil action by or against any corporation upon the ground that it was incorporated by or under an Act of Congress, unless...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action by an alien for a tort only, committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States. ...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of all civil actions and proceedings against - (1) consuls or vice consuls...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, concurrent with State courts, of any action on a bond executed under any law of the United States, except matters within...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action involving the right of any person, in whole or in part of Indian blood or descent, to any allotment of...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of actions between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants from different states. ...


(a) The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of any action or proceeding for the recovery or enforcement of any fine, penalty, or ...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction, exclusive of the courts of the States, of any seizure under any law of the United States on land or upon waters not...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action commenced by any person to recover damages for any injury to his person or property on account of any act...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all proceedings to condemn real estate for the use of the United States or its departments or agencies. ...


A district court shall not have jurisdiction of a civil action in which any party, by assignment or otherwise, has been improperly or collusively made or joined to invoke...


(a) Each of the States listed in the following table shall have jurisdiction over civil causes of action between Indians or to which Indians are parties which arise in the areas...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any action in the nature of mandamus to compel an officer or employee of the United States or any agency thereof to perform...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil actions, brought by any Indian tribe or band with a governing body duly recognized by the Secretary of the...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action brought for the protection of jurors' employment under section 1875 of this title. ...


(a) The district courts shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy, of any civil action commenced by any person against an insurer...


(a) The United States District Court for the District of Columbia shall have original jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy, over any civil action brought by...


For the purposes of this chapter, references to laws of the United States or Acts of Congress do not include laws applicable exclusively to the District of Columbia. ...


(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) or as expressly provided otherwise by Federal statute, in any civil action of which the district courts have original...


The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action based on a counterclaim raised pursuant to section 337(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, to the extent that...


(a) A civil action wherein jurisdiction is founded only on diversity of citizenship may, except as otherwise provided by law, be brought only in (1) a judicial district where...


Any civil action, of a local nature, involving property located in different districts in the same State, may be brought in any of such districts. ...


...


Any civil action by a national banking association to enjoin the Comptroller of the Currency, under the provisions of any Act of Congress relating to such associations, may...


(a) A civil proceeding for the recovery of a pecuniary fine, penalty or forfeiture may be prosecuted in the district where it accrues or the defendant is found. (b) A...


Any civil action for the collection of internal revenue taxes may be brought in the district where the liability for such tax accrues, in the district of the taxpayer's residence,...


Any civil action of interpleader or in the nature of interpleader under section 1335 of this title may be brought in the judicial district in which one or more of the...


(a) Except as otherwise provided by law, a civil action brought under section 1336(a) of this title shall be brought only in a judicial district in which any of the parties...


Any civil action by any tenant in common or joint tenant for the partition of lands, where the United States is one of the tenants in common or joint tenants, may be brought only...


(a) Civil actions, suits, or proceedings arising under any Act of Congress relating to copyrights or exclusive rights in mask works or designs may be instituted in the district...


Any civil action by a stockholder on behalf of his corporation may be prosecuted in any judicial district where the corporation might have sued the same defendants. ...


(a) Any civil action in a district court against the United States under subsection (a) of section 1346 of this title may be prosecuted only: (1) Except as provided in...


Proceedings to condemn real estate for the use of the United States or its departments or agencies shall be brought in the district court of the district where the land is located...


(a) For the convenience of parties and witnesses, in the interest of justice, a district court may transfer any civil action to any other district or division where it might have...


Actions or proceedings pending at the time of the creation of a new district or division or transfer of a county or territory from one division or district to another may be tried...


(a) The district court of a district in which is filed a case laying venue in the wrong division or district shall dismiss, or if it be in the interest of justice, transfer such...


(a) When civil actions involving one or more common questions of fact are pending in different districts, such actions may be transferred to any district for coordinated...


Except as provided in section 1410 of this title, a case under title 11 may be commenced in the district court for the district - (1) in which the domicile, residence,...


(a) Except as otherwise provided in subsections (b) and (d), a proceeding arising under title 11 or arising in or related to a case under title 11 may be commenced in the...


(a) A case under section 304 of title 11 to enjoin the commencement or continuation of an action or proceeding in a State or Federal court, or the enforcement of a judgment, may be ...


(a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, this chapter and title 11 do not affect any right to trial by jury that an individual has under applicable nonbankruptcy...


A district court may transfer a case or proceeding under title 11 to a district court for another district, in the interest of justice or for the convenience of the parties. ...


Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this chapter, a civil action under section 1346(g) may be brought in the United States district court for the district in which...


(a) Except as otherwise expressly provided by Act of Congress, any civil action brought in a State court of which the district courts of the United States have original...


(a) A civil action or criminal prosecution commenced in a State court against any of the following may be removed by them to the district court of the United States for the...


A civil or criminal prosecution in a court of a State of the United States against a member of the armed forces of the United States on account of an act done under color of...


Any of the following civil actions or criminal prosecutions, commenced in a State court may be removed by the defendant to the district court of the United States for the district...


Any action brought under section 2410 of this title against the United States in any State court may be removed by the United States to the district court of the United States for...


(a) A civil action in any State court against a railroad or its receivers or trustees, arising under sections 1-4 and 5-10 of the Act of April 22, 1908 (45 U.S.C. 51-54, 55-60),...


(a) A defendant or defendants desiring to remove any civil action or criminal prosecution from a State court shall file in the district court of the United States for the district...


(a) In any case removed from a State court, the district court may issue all necessary orders and process to bring before it all proper parties whether served by process issued by...


In all cases removed from any State court to any district court of the United States in which any one or more of the defendants has not been served with process or in which...


Where a party is entitled to copies of the records and proceedings in any suit or prosecution in a State court, to be used in any district court of the United States, and the clerk...


Whenever any action is removed from a State court to a district court of the United States, any attachment or sequestration of the goods or estate of the defendant in such action...


For purposes of this chapter - (1) The term ''State court'' includes the Superior Court of the District of Columbia. (2) The term ''State'' includes the District...


(a) A party may remove any claim or cause of action in a civil action other than a proceeding before the United States Tax Court or a civil action by a governmental unit to...


(a)(1) The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have jurisdiction to render judgment upon any claim against the United States founded either upon the Constitution, or any...


Any bill, except a bill for a pension, may be referred by either House of Congress to the chief judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims for a report in conformity...


...


The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have jurisdiction to determine the amount, if any, due to or from the United States by reason of any unsettled account of any...


The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have jurisdiction to render judgment upon any claim for damages by any person unjustly convicted of an offense against the...


The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have jurisdiction to render judgment upon any claim by a disbursing officer of the United States or by his administrator or...


The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have jurisdiction to render judgment upon any claim for damages to oyster growers on private or leased lands or bottoms arising...


(a) Whenever an invention described in and covered by a patent of the United States is used or manufactured by or for the United States without license of the owner thereof or...


The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have jurisdiction to render judgment upon any claim for liquidated damages withheld from a contractor or subcontractor under...


The United States Court of Federal Claims shall not have jurisdiction of any claim for or in respect to which the plaintiff or his assignee has pending in any other court any suit...


The United States Court of Federal Claims shall not have jurisdiction of any claim for a pension. ...


Except as otherwise provided by Act of Congress, the United States Court of Federal Claims shall not have jurisdiction of any claim against the United States growing out of...


The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have jurisdiction to render judgment upon any set-off or demand by the United States against any plaintiff in such court. ...


...


The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have jurisdiction of any claim against the United States accruing after August 13, 1946, in favor of any tribe, band, or...


...


The United States Court of Federal Claims shall have jurisdiction to hear any suit for and issue a declaratory judgment under section 7428 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. ...


The Court of Federal Claims shall have jurisdiction to hear and to render judgment upon any petition under section 6226 or 6228(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986. ...


The United States Court of Federal Claims shall not have jurisdiction to hear any action or proceeding for any refund or credit of any penalty imposed under section 6700 of...


(a) The Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action commenced to contest the denial of a protest, in whole or in part, under section 515 of...


The Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action which arises out of an import transaction and which is commenced by the United States - ...


In any civil action in the Court of International Trade, the court shall have exclusive jurisdiction to render judgment upon any counterclaim, cross-claim, or third-party action...


The United States Court of International Trade shall have exclusive jurisdiction of any civil action which arises under section 777(f) of the Tariff Act of 1930 and is commenced...


The Court of International Trade shall possess all the powers in law and equity of, or as conferred by statute upon, a district court of the United States. ...


The Congress finds that the determination by United States courts of the claims of foreign states to immunity from the jurisdiction of such courts would serve the interests of...


For purposes of this chapter - (a) A ''foreign state'', except as used in section 1608 of this title, includes a political subdivision of a foreign state or an agency...


Subject to existing international agreements to which the United States is a party at the time of enactment of this Act a foreign state shall be immune from the jurisdiction of...


(a) A foreign state shall not be immune from the jurisdiction of courts of the United States or of the States in any case - (1) in which the foreign state has waived its...


As to any claim for relief with respect to which a foreign state is not entitled to immunity under section 1605 or 1607 of this chapter, the foreign state shall be liable in the...


In any action brought by a foreign state, or in which a foreign state intervenes, in a court of the United States or of a State, the foreign state shall not be accorded immunity...


(a) Service in the courts of the United States and of the States shall be made upon a foreign state or political subdivision of a foreign state: (1) by delivery of a copy...


Subject to existing international agreements to which the United States is a party at the time of enactment of this Act the property in the United States of a foreign state shall...


(a) The property in the United States of a foreign state, as defined in section 1603(a) of this chapter, used for a commercial activity in the United States, shall not be immune...


(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 1610 of this chapter, the property of those organizations designated by the President as being entitled to enjoy the...


Whenever a civil action is filed in a court as defined in section 610 of this title or an appeal, including a petition for review of administrative action, is noticed for or...


(a) The Supreme Court and all courts established by Act of Congress may issue all writs necessary or appropriate in aid of their respective jurisdictions and agreeable to the...


The laws of the several states, except where the Constitution or treaties of the United States or Acts of Congress otherwise require or provide, shall be regarded as rules of...


Defective allegations of jurisdiction may be amended, upon terms, in the trial or appellate courts. ...


In all courts of the United States the parties may plead and conduct their own cases personally or by counsel as, by the rules of such courts, respectively, are permitted to...


In an action in a district court to enforce any lien upon or claim to, or to remove any incumbrance or lien or cloud upon the title to, real or personal property within the...


The creation of a new district or division or the transfer of any territory to another district or division shall not affect or divest any lien theretofore acquired in a...


(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, each court of the United States shall determine the order in which civil actions are heard and determined, except that the court...


Except as otherwise provided by law, a civil action arising under an Act of Congress enacted after the date of the enactment of this section may not be commenced later than 4...


(a) Stay. - In a civil action involving parties that are also parties to a proceeding before the United States International Trade Commission under section 337 of the Tariff Act...


All writs and process issuing from a court of the United States shall be under the seal of the court and signed by the clerk thereof. ...


In proceedings in a district court where a receiver is appointed for property, real, personal, or mixed, situated in different districts, process may issue and be executed in any...


Except as otherwise provided by Act of Congress, no person shall be arrested in one district for trial in another in any civil action in a district court. ...


In a patent infringement action commenced in a district where the defendant is not a resident but has a regular and established place of business, service of process, summons...


Process in a stockholder's action in behalf of his corporation may be served upon such corporation in any district where it is organized or licensed to do business or is...


(a) The district court of the district in which a person resides or is found may order service upon him of any document issued in connection with a proceeding in a foreign...


The admitted or proved handwriting of any person shall be admissible, for purposes of comparison, to determine genuineness of other handwriting attributed to such person. ...


If any business, institution, member of a profession or calling, or any department or agency of government, in the regular course of business or activity has kept or recorded...


(a) Books or records of account or minutes of proceedings of any department or agency of the United States shall be admissible to prove the act, transaction or occurrence as...


(a) A lost or destroyed record of any proceeding in any court of the United States may be supplied on application of any interested party not at fault, by substituting a...


(a) When the record of any case or matter in any court of the United States to which the United States is a party, is lost or destroyed, a certified copy of any official paper of...


Extracts from the Journals of the Senate and the House of Representatives, and from the Executive Journal of the Senate when the injunction of secrecy is removed, certified by...


Any person to whose custody the bond of any officer of the United States has been committed shall, on proper request and payment of the fee allowed by any Act of Congress,...


The Acts of the legislature of any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States, or copies thereof, shall be authenticated by affixing the seal of such State, Territory or ...


(a) The appropriate authorities of every State shall enforce according to its terms, and shall not modify except as provided in subsections (f), (g), and (h) of this section,...


(a) General Rule. - The appropriate authorities of each State - (1) shall enforce according to its terms a child support order made consistently with this section by a court...


No State, territory, or possession of the United States, or Indian tribe, shall be required to give effect to any public act, record, or judicial proceeding of any other...


All nonjudicial records or books kept in any public office of any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States, or copies thereof, shall be proved or admitted in any court...


Copies of all official documents and papers in the office of any consul or vice consul of the United States, and of all official entries in the books or records of any such...


An official record or document of a foreign country may be evidenced by a copy, summary, or excerpt authenticated as provided in the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. ...


...


The certificate of the Postmaster General or the General Accounting Office of the mailing to a postmaster of a statement of his account and that payment of the balance stated has...


Copies of letters patent or of any records, books, papers, or drawings belonging to the United States Patent and Trademark Office and relating to patents, authenticated under the...


Copies of the specifications and drawings of foreign letters patent, or applications for foreign letters patent, and copies of excerpts of the official journals and other...


Wherever, under any law of the United States or under any rule, regulation, order, or requirement made pursuant to law, any matter is required or permitted to be supported,...


(a) The Department of State has power, directly, or through suitable channels - (1) to receive a letter rogatory issued, or request made, by a foreign or...


(a) The district court of the district in which a person resides or is found may order him to give his testimony or statement or to produce a document or other thing for use in...


(a) A court of the United States may order the issuance of a subpoena requiring the appearance as a witness before it, or before a person or body designated by it, of a national...


(a) The court of the United States which has issued a subpoena served in a foreign country may order the person who has failed to appear or who has failed to produce a document...


...


(a)(1) Except as otherwise provided by law, a witness in attendance at any court of the United States, or before a United States Magistrate Judge, or before any person authorized...


Any person interested in a share of any fine, penalty or forfeiture incurred under any Act of Congress, may be examined as a witness in any proceeding for the recovery of such...


...


No constructive or double mileage fees shall be allowed by reason of any person being summoned both as a witness and a juror. ...


(a) In any case in which the United States or an officer or agency of the United States is a party, the United States marshal for the district shall pay all fees of witnesses on...


(a) Whenever a witness in any proceeding before or ancillary to any court or grand jury of the United States refuses without just cause shown to comply with an order of the court...


(a) The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall establish a program to facilitate the use of certified and otherwise qualified interpreters...


(a) The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts shall establish a program for the provision of special interpretation services in criminal actions and...


It is the policy of the United States that all litigants in Federal courts entitled to trial by jury shall have the right to grand and petit juries selected at random from a...


No citizen shall be excluded from service as a grand or petit juror in the district courts of the United States or in the Court of International Trade on account of race,...


(a) Each United States district court shall devise and place into operation a written plan for random selection of grand and petit jurors that shall be designed to achieve...


(a) From time to time as directed by the district court, the clerk or a district judge shall publicly draw at random from the master jury wheel the names of as many persons as may...


(a) The chief judge of the district court, or such other district court judge as the plan may provide, on his initiative or upon recommendation of the clerk or jury commission, or...


(a) The jury commission, or in the absence thereof the clerk, shall maintain a qualified jury wheel and shall place in such wheel names of all persons drawn from the master jury...


(a) In criminal cases, before the voir dire examination begins, or within seven days after the defendant discovered or could have discovered, by the exercise of diligence, the...


After the master jury wheel is emptied and refilled pursuant to section 1863(b)(4) of this title, and after all persons selected to serve as jurors before the master wheel was...


For purposes of this chapter - (a) ''clerk'' and ''clerk of the court'' shall mean the clerk of the district court of the United States, any authorized deputy clerk,...


In civil cases, each party shall be entitled to three peremptory challenges. Several defendants or several plaintiffs may be considered as a single party for the purposes of...


(a) Grand and petit jurors in district courts appearing pursuant to this chapter shall be paid the fees and allowances provided by this section. The requisite fees and...


In all original actions at law in the Supreme Court against citizens of the United States, issues of fact shall be tried by a jury. ...


In any case of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction relating to any matter of contract or tort arising upon or concerning any vessel of twenty tons or upward, enrolled and licensed...


In all actions to recover the forfeiture annexed to any articles of agreement, covenant, bond, or other specialty, wherein the forfeiture, breach, or nonperformance appears by...


(a) No employer shall discharge, threaten to discharge, intimidate, or coerce any permanent employee by reason of such employee's jury service, or the attendance or...


(a) In any civil action in the Court of International Trade which is to be tried before a jury, the jury shall be selected in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and...


(a) Subject to the provisions of this section and title 5 of the United States Code, subchapter 1 of chapter 81, title 5, United States Code, applies to a Federal grand or...


(a) At the option of each district court, jurors may be summoned and qualified in a single procedure, if the court's jury selection plan so authorizes, in lieu of the two...


The Supreme Court may fix the fees to be charged by its clerk. The fees of the clerk, cost of serving process, and other necessary disbursements incidental to any case before...


Where a judgment is affirmed by the Supreme Court or a court of appeals, the court in its discretion may adjudge to the prevailing party just damages for his delay, and single...


The fees and costs to be charged and collected in each court of appeals shall be prescribed from time to time by the Judicial Conference of the United States. Such fees and...


(a) The clerk of each district court shall require the parties instituting any civil action, suit or proceeding in such court, whether by original process, removal or otherwise,...


(a)(1) Subject to subsection (b), any court of the United States may authorize the commencement, prosecution or defense of any suit, action or proceeding, civil or criminal, or...


(a) Screening. - The court shall review, before docketing, if feasible or, in any event, as soon as practicable after docketing, a complaint in a civil action in which a...


In all courts of the United States, seamen may institute and prosecute suits and appeals in their own names and for their own benefit for wages or salvage or the enforcement of...


Upon the filing of any separate or joint notice of appeal or application for appeal or upon the receipt of any order allowing, or notice of the allowance of, an appeal or of a writ...


(a) Costs shall be included in any judgment, order, or decree rendered against any person for the violation of an Act of Congress in which a civil fine or forfeiture of property...


Whenever any action or suit is dismissed in any district court, the Court of International Trade, or the Court of Federal Claims for want of jurisdiction, such court may order...


A judge or clerk of any court of the United States may tax as costs the following: (1) Fees of the clerk and marshal; (2) Fees of the court reporter for all or any part...


(a)(1) The United States marshals or deputy marshals shall routinely collect, and a court may tax as costs, fees for the following: (A) Serving a writ of...


The fees of more than four witnesses shall not be taxed against the United States, in the examination of any criminal case before a United States magistrate judge, unless...


(a) Attorney's and proctor's docket fees in courts of the United States may be taxed as costs as follows: $20 on trial or final hearing (including a default judgment ...


Before any bill of costs is taxed, the party claiming any item of cost or disbursement shall attach thereto an affidavit, made by himself or by his duly authorized attorney or...


Except as otherwise provided by Act of Congress, the allowance and taxation of costs in admiralty and maritime cases shall be prescribed by rules promulgated by the Supreme Court. ...


(a) The Judicial Conference of the United States shall prescribe from time to time the fees and costs to be charged and collected in the United States Court of Federal Claims. ...


Any attorney or other person admitted to conduct cases in any court of the United States or any Territory thereof who so multiplies the proceedings in any case unreasonably...


Whenever a judgment is rendered for the plaintiff in any patent infringement action involving a part of a patent and it appears that the patentee, in his specifications, claimed...


Where the ministerial officers of the United States incur extraordinary expense in executing Acts of Congress, the payment of which is not specifically provided for, the...


(a) Notwithstanding section 1915 of this title, the parties commencing a case under title 11 shall pay to the clerk of the district court or the clerk of the bankruptcy court, if...


(a) Of the amounts paid to the clerk of court as a fee under section 1914(a) or as part of a judgment for costs under section 2412(a)(2) of this title, $90 shall be deposited into...


In any civil action brought by an adult convicted of a crime and confined in a Federal correctional facility, the court may order the revocation of such earned good time credit...


In any civil action brought by an adult convicted of a crime and confined in a Federal correctional facility, the court may order the revocation of such earned good time credit...


(a) Interest shall be allowed on any money judgment in a civil case recovered in a district court. Execution therefor may be levied by the marshal, in any case where, by the law...


Every judgment rendered by a district court within a State shall be a lien on the property located in such State in the same manner, to the same extent and under the same...


A judgment in an action for the recovery of money or property entered in any court of appeals, district court, bankruptcy court, or in the Court of International Trade may...


...


Where the law of a State requires a notice of an action concerning real property pending in a court of the State to be registered, recorded, docketed, or indexed in a...


(a) Any realty or interest therein sold under any order or decree of any court of the United States shall be sold as a whole or in separate parcels at public sale at the courthouse...


A public sale of realty or interest therein under any order, judgment or decree of any court of the United States shall not be made without notice published once a week for at...


Whenever a United States marshal dies, is removed from office, or the term of his commission expires, after levying on realty or any interest therein under a writ of execution...


Any personalty sold under any order or decree of any court of the United States shall be sold in accordance with section 2001 of this title, unless the court orders otherwise. ...


Whenever State law requires that goods taken on execution be appraised before sale, goods taken under execution issued from a court of the United States shall be appraised in...


Execution shall not issue against a collector or other revenue officer on a final judgment in any proceeding against him for any of his acts, or for the recovery of any money...


(a) A person shall not be imprisoned for debt on a writ of execution or other process issued from a court of the United States in any State wherein imprisonment for debt has...


All moneys paid into any court of the United States, or received by the officers thereof, in any case pending or adjudicated in such court, shall be forthwith deposited with...


No money deposited under section 2041 of this title shall be withdrawn except by order of court. In every case in which the right to withdraw money deposited in court...


Except for public moneys deposited under section 2041 of this title, each clerk of the United States courts shall deposit public moneys that the clerk collects into a checking...


On motion of the United States attorney, the court shall order any money belonging to and deposited by or on behalf of the defendant with the court for the purposes of a...


(a) The Supreme Court and all courts established by Act of Congress may from time to time prescribe rules for the conduct of their business. Such rules shall be consistent with...


(a) The Supreme Court shall have the power to prescribe general rules of practice and procedure and rules of evidence for cases in the United States district courts...


(a)(1) The Judicial Conference shall prescribe and publish the procedures for the consideration of proposed rules under this section. (2) The Judicial Conference may...


(a) The Supreme Court shall transmit to the Congress not later than May 1 of the year in which a rule prescribed under section 2072 is to become effective a copy of the proposed...


The Supreme Court shall have the power to prescribe by general rules, the forms of process, writs, pleadings, and motions, and the practice and procedure in cases under title 11. ...


...


(a) The rules for the conduct of the business of each court of appeals, including the operating procedures of such court, shall be published. Each court of appeals shall print...


(a) A direct appeal to the Supreme Court from any decision under section 1253 of this title, holding unconstitutional in whole or in part, any Act of Congress, shall be taken...


Criminal cases on review from State courts shall have priority, on the docket of the Supreme Court, over all cases except cases to which the United States is a party and such...


...


A review by the Supreme Court of a judgment or decree of a State court shall be conducted in the same manner and under the same regulations, and shall have the same effect, as if...


There shall be no reversal in the Supreme Court or a court of appeals for error in ruling upon matters in abatement which do not involve jurisdiction. ...


The Supreme Court or any other court of appellate jurisdiction may affirm, modify, vacate, set aside or reverse any judgment, decree, or order of a court lawfully brought before...


(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, no appeal shall bring any judgment, order or decree in an action, suit or proceeding of a civil nature before a court of appeals...


Where the power of any court of appeals to review a case depends upon the amount or value in controversy, such amount or value, if not otherwise satisfactorily disclosed upon...


If a case brought to the Supreme Court by direct appeal from a district court cannot be heard and determined because of the absence of a quorum of qualified justices, the...


...


On the hearing of any appeal or writ of certiorari in any case, the court shall give judgment after an examination of the record without regard to errors or defects which do...


(a) The rules prescribed under the authority of section 2072 of this title may provide for the time and manner of filing and the contents of the record in all proceedings...


For purposes of this chapter, the terms ''State court'', ''State courts'', and ''highest court of a State'' include the District of Columbia Court of Appeals. ...


(a) In a case of actual controversy within its jurisdiction, except with respect to Federal taxes other than actions brought under section 7428 of the Internal Revenue Code of...


Further necessary or proper relief based on a declaratory judgment or decree may be granted, after reasonable notice and hearing, against any adverse party whose rights have been ...


(a) Writs of habeas corpus may be granted by the Supreme Court, any justice thereof, the district courts and any circuit judge within their respective jurisdictions. The order of...


Application for a writ of habeas corpus shall be in writing signed and verified by the person for whose relief it is intended or by someone acting in his behalf. It shall...


A court, justice or judge entertaining an application for a writ of habeas corpus shall forthwith award the writ or issue an order directing the respondent to show cause why the...


(a) No circuit or district judge shall be required to entertain an application for a writ of habeas corpus to inquire into the detention of a person pursuant to a judgment of a...


On the hearing of an application for a writ of habeas corpus to inquire into the legality of the detention of a person pursuant to a judgment the certificate of the judge who...


On application for a writ of habeas corpus, evidence may be taken orally or by deposition, or, in the discretion of the judge, by affidavit. If affidavits are admitted any...


On application for a writ of habeas corpus documentary evidence, transcripts of proceedings upon arraignment, plea and sentence and a transcript of the oral testimony introduced...


The allegations of a return to the writ of habeas corpus or of an answer to an order to show cause in a habeas corpus proceeding, if not traversed, shall be accepted as true except...


On application for a writ of habeas corpus to inquire into the detention of any person pursuant to a judgment of a court of the United States, the respondent shall promptly file...


If on any application for a writ of habeas corpus an order has been made permitting the petitioner to prosecute the application in forma pauperis, the clerk of any court of the...


A justice or judge of the United States before whom a habeas corpus proceeding is pending, may, before final judgment or after final judgment of discharge, or pending appeal, stay...


Prior to the hearing of a habeas corpus proceeding in behalf of a person in custody of State officers or by virtue of State laws notice shall be served on the attorney general...


(a) In a habeas corpus proceeding or a proceeding under section 2255 before a district judge, the final order shall be subject to review, on appeal, by the court of appeals for...


(a) The Supreme Court, a Justice thereof, a circuit judge, or a district court shall entertain an application for a writ of habeas corpus in behalf of a person in custody pursuant...


A prisoner in custody under sentence of a court established by Act of Congress claiming the right to be released upon the ground that the sentence was imposed in violation of...


...


(a) This chapter shall apply to cases arising under section 2254 brought by prisoners in State custody who are subject to a capital sentence. It shall apply only if the provisions...


(a) Upon the entry in the appropriate State court of record of an order under section 2261(c), a warrant or order setting an execution date for a State prisoner shall be stayed upon ...


(a) Any application under this chapter for habeas corpus relief under section 2254 must be filed in the appropriate district court not later than 180 days after final State...


(a) Whenever a State prisoner under capital sentence files a petition for habeas corpus relief to which this chapter applies, the district court shall only consider a claim or...


(a) For purposes of this section, a ''unitary review'' procedure means a State procedure that authorizes a person under sentence of death to raise, in the course of direct review...


(a) The adjudication of any application under section 2254 that is subject to this chapter, and the adjudication of any motion under section 2255 by a person under sentence of...


...


A court of the United States may not grant an injunction to stay proceedings in a State court except as expressly authorized by Act of Congress, or where necessary in aid of...


(a) A district court of three judges shall be convened when otherwise required by Act of Congress, or when an action is filed challenging the constitutionality of the...


(a) Except as otherwise provided by an Act of Congress, a proceeding to enjoin or suspend, in whole or in part, a rule, regulation, or order of the Surface Transportation Board...


All actions specified in section 2321 of this title shall be brought by or against the United States. ...


The Attorney General shall represent the Government in the actions specified in section 2321 of this title and in enforcement actions and actions to collect civil penalties...


...


As used in this chapter - (1) ''clerk'' means the clerk of the court in which the petition for the review of an order, reviewable under this chapter, is filed; ...


The court of appeals (other than the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit) has exclusive jurisdiction to enjoin, set aside, suspend (in whole or in part), or...


The venue of a proceeding under this chapter is in the judicial circuit in which the petitioner resides or has its principal office, or in the United States Court of Appeals for...


On the entry of a final order reviewable under this chapter, the agency shall promptly give notice thereof by service or publication in accordance with its rules. Any party...


The court of appeals may hold a prehearing conference or direct a judge of the court to hold a prehearing conference. ...


Unless the proceeding has been terminated on a motion to dismiss the petition, the agency shall file in the office of the clerk the record on review as provided by section 2112...


(a) Unless determined on a motion to dismiss, petitions to review orders reviewable under this chapter are heard in the court of appeals on the record of the pleadings,...


The Attorney General is responsible for and has control of the interests of the Government in all court proceedings under this chapter. The agency, and any party in interest in...


(a) The court of appeals has jurisdiction of the proceeding on the filing and service of a petition to review. The court of appeals in which the record on review is filed, on...


(a) An order granting or denying an interlocutory injunction under section 2349(b) of this title and a final judgment of the court of appeals in a proceeding to review under...


The several district courts have jurisdiction specifically to enforce, and to enjoin and restrain any person from violating any order issued under section 193 of title 7. ...


...


...


In any civil action of interpleader or in the nature of interpleader under section 1335 of this title, a district court may issue its process for all claimants and enter its...


(a) Except as provided by the Contract Disputes Act of 1978, every civil action commenced against the United States shall be barred unless the complaint is filed within six...


Subject to chapter 179 of this title, any action against the United States under section 1346 shall be tried by the court without a jury, except that any action against the...


(a) In any action, suit or proceeding in a court of the United States to which the United States or any agency, officer or employee thereof is not a party, wherein...


A civil action for damages commenced by or on behalf of the United States or in which it is interested shall not abate on the death of a defendant but shall survive and be...


In any action or suit commenced by the United States against a corporation for the recovery of money upon a bill, note, or other security, the debtors of the corporation may...


In an action by the United States against an individual, evidence supporting the defendant's claim for a credit shall not be admitted unless he first proves that such claim has...


In an action by the United States against any person accountable for public money who fails to pay into the Treasury the sum reported due the United States, upon the adjustment of...


Security for damages or costs shall not be required of the United States, any department or agency thereof or any party acting under the direction of any such department or agency...


Any civil action by any tenant in common or joint tenant owning an undivided interest in lands, where the United States is one of such tenants in common or joint tenants, against...


(a) The United States may be named as a party defendant in a civil action under this section to adjudicate a disputed title to real property in which the United States claims...


(a) Under the conditions prescribed in this section and section 1444 of this title for the protection of the United States, the United States may be named a party in any civil...


In any judgment of any court rendered (whether against the United States, a collector or deputy collector of internal revenue, a former collector or deputy collector, or the...


(a)(1) Except as otherwise specifically provided by statute, a judgment for costs, as enumerated in section 1920 of this title, but not including the fees and expenses of...


A writ of execution on a judgment obtained for the use of the United States in any court thereof shall be issued from and made returnable to the court which rendered the judgment,...


Except as provided by the Contract Disputes Act of 1978, payment of final judgments rendered by a district court or the Court of International Trade against the United States shall...


(a) Subject to the provisions of section 2416 of this title, and except as otherwise provided by Congress, every action for money damages brought by the United States or an officer...


For the purpose of computing the limitations periods established in section 2415, there shall be excluded all periods during which - (a) the defendant or the res is outside...


(a) Whenever a civil fine, penalty or pecuniary forfeiture is prescribed for the violation of an Act of Congress without specifying the mode of recovery or enforcement thereof, it...


Except as otherwise provided by Act of Congress, an action, suit or proceeding for the enforcement of any civil fine, penalty, or forfeiture, pecuniary or otherwise, shall not...


All property taken or detained under any revenue law of the United States shall not be repleviable, but shall be deemed to be in the custody of the law and subject only to the...


(a) Except in cases of seizures for forfeiture under any law of the United States, whenever a warrant of arrest or other process in rem is issued in any admiralty case, the...


(a) Upon the entry of a judgment for the claimant in any proceeding to condemn or forfeit property seized or arrested under any provision of Federal law - (1) such...


(a) A judicial officer may disallow a person from using the resources of the courts of the United States in furtherance of a claim in any related civil forfeiture action or a claim...


(a) Definitions. - In this section - (1) the term ''foreign nation'' means a country that has become a party to the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic ...


Every claim of which the United States Court of Federal Claims has jurisdiction shall be barred unless the petition thereon is filed within six years after such claim first accrues. ...


(a) Citizens or subjects of any foreign government which accords to citizens of the United States the right to prosecute claims against their government in its courts may sue...


(a) Parties to any suit in the United States Court of Federal Claims may appear before a judge of that court in person or by attorney, produce evidence, and examine witnesses. ...


The United States Court of Federal Claims may, at the instance of the Attorney General, order any plaintiff to appear, upon reasonable notice, before any judge of the court and...


Any judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims may sit at any place within the United States to take evidence and enter judgment. ...


A witness in a suit in the United States Court of Federal Claims shall not be exempt or disqualified because he is a party to or interested in such suit. ...


(a) The United States Court of Federal Claims may call upon any department or agency of the United States or upon any party for any information or papers, not privileged, for...


Upon the trial of any suit in the United States Court of Federal Claims in which any setoff, counterclaim, claim for damages, or other demand is set up on the part of the...


(a) Whenever a bill, except a bill for a pension, is referred by either House of Congress to the chief judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims pursuant to section 1492...


(a) The Comptroller General may transmit to the United States Court of Federal Claims for trial and adjudication any claim or matter of which the Court of Federal Claims might...


Notice of suit under section 1494 of this title shall be given to the Attorney General, to the Comptroller General, and to the head of the department requested to settle the...


Whenever the United States Court of Federal Claims finds that any loss by a disbursing officer of the United States was without his fault or negligence, it shall render a...


(a) Any person suing under section 1495 of this title must allege and prove that: (1) His conviction has been reversed or set aside on the ground that he is not guilty...


A claim against the United States shall be forfeited to the United States by any person who corruptly practices or attempts to practice any fraud against the United States in...


(a) The United States Court of Federal Claims may grant a plaintiff a new trial on any ground established by rules of common law or equity applicable as between private parties. ...


(a) Interest on a claim against the United States shall be allowed in a judgment of the United States Court of Federal Claims only under a contract or Act of Congress...


(a) Except as provided by the Contract Disputes Act of 1978, every final judgment rendered by the United States Court of Federal Claims against the United States shall be paid out...


...


A final judgment of the United States Court of Federal Claims against any plaintiff shall forever bar any further claim, suit, or demand against the United States arising out of...


...


(a) Subpoenas requiring the attendance of parties or witnesses and subpoenas requiring the production of books, papers, documents or tangible things by any party or witness...


Review of a decision of the United States Court of Federal Claims shall be obtained by filing a notice of appeal with the clerk of the Court of Federal Claims within the time and...


(a) A civil action contesting the denial of a protest, in whole or in part, under section 515 of the Tariff Act of 1930 may be commenced in the Court of International Trade by...


(a) Except for civil actions specified in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, a civil action in the Court of International Trade shall be commenced by filing concurrently...


(a) A filing fee shall be payable to the clerk of the Court of International Trade upon the commencement of a civil action in such court. The amount of the fee shall be prescribed...


Reasonable notice of the time and place of trial or hearing before the Court of International Trade shall be given to all parties to any civil action, as prescribed by the rules...


(a) In any action commenced in the Court of International Trade contesting the denial of a protest under section 515 of the Tariff Act of 1930 or the denial of a petition...


(a) A civil action contesting the denial, in whole or in part, of a protest under section 515 of the Tariff Act of 1930 is barred unless commenced in accordance with the rules of...


(a) A civil action contesting the denial of a protest under section 515 of the Tariff Act of 1930 may be commenced in the Court of International Trade only if all liquidated...


In any civil action under section 515 of the Tariff Act of 1930 in which the denial, in whole or in part, of a protest is a precondition to the commencement of a civil action in...


(a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, in any civil action commenced in the Court of International Trade under section 515, 516, or 516A of the Tariff Act...


(a) The Court of International Trade shall make its determinations upon the basis of the record made before the court in the following categories of civil actions: (1)...


(a) Except as otherwise provided by law, in any civil action in the Court of International Trade, each party and its counsel shall have an opportunity to introduce evidence, to...


The Court of International Trade may order an analysis of imported merchandise and reports thereon by laboratories or agencies of the United States or laboratories accredited by the ...


(a) The Court of International Trade may enter a money judgment - (1) for or against the United States in any civil action commenced under section 1581 or 1582 of this...


If, in a civil action in the Court of International Trade under section 515 of the Tariff Act of 1930, the plaintiff obtains monetary relief by a judgment or under a...


(a) A final decision of the Court of International Trade in a contested civil action or a decision granting or refusing a preliminary injunction shall be supported by - (1)...


After the Court of International Trade has rendered a judgment or order, the court may, upon the motion of a party or upon its own motion, grant a retrial or rehearing, as the...


...


As used in this chapter and sections 1346(b) and 2401(b) of this title, the term ''Federal agency'' includes the executive departments, the judicial and legislative branches,...


The head of each Federal agency or his designee, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Attorney General, may consider, ascertain, adjust, determine, compromise, and...


The head of each federal agency shall report annually to Congress all claims paid by it under section 2672 of this title, stating the name of each claimant, the amount claimed,...


The United States shall be liable, respecting the provisions of this title relating to tort claims, in the same manner and to the same extent as a private individual under...


(a) An action shall not be instituted upon a claim against the United States for money damages for injury or loss of property or personal injury or death caused by the negligent...


The judgment in an action under section 1346(b) of this title shall constitute a complete bar to any action by the claimant, by reason of the same subject matter, against the...


The Attorney General or his designee may arbitrate, compromise, or settle any claim cognizable under section 1346(b) of this title, after the commencement of an action thereon. ...


No attorney shall charge, demand, receive, or collect for services rendered, fees in excess of 25 per centum of any judgment rendered pursuant to section 1346(b) of this title or...


(a) The authority of any federal agency to sue and be sued in its own name shall not be construed to authorize suits against such federal agency on claims which are cognizable...


The provisions of this chapter and section 1346(b) of this title shall not apply to - (a) Any claim based upon an act or omission of an employee of the Government,...


(a) Where debts are due from a defaulting or delinquent postmaster, contractor, or other officer, agent or employee of the Post Office Department, a warrant of attachment may...


A United States attorney or assistant United States attorney or a person authorized by the Attorney General - (1) upon his own affidavit or that of another credible person, ...


Upon an order of a judge of a court, or, in his absence and upon the clerk's own initiative, the clerk shall issue a warrant for the attachment of the property belonging to the...


Not later than twenty days before the return day of a warrant issued under section 2712 of this title, the party whose property is attached, on notice to the United States...


When the property attached is sold on an interlocutory order or is producing revenue, the money arising from the sale or revenue shall be invested, under the order of the court,...


The marshal shall cause publication of an executed warrant of attachment - (1) for two months in case of an absconding debtor, and (2) for four months in case of...


After the first publication of the notice of attachment, a person indebted to, or having possession of property of a defendant and having knowledge of the notice, shall answer for...


The court, or a judge thereof, upon - (1) application of the party when property has been attached and (2) execution to the United States of a penal bond, approved by ...


In suits for balances due the Post Office Department may recover interest at the rate of 6 per centum per year from the time of default. ...


(a) In General. - Except as provided in subsection (b), the (FOOTNOTE 1) chapter provides the exclusive civil procedures for the United States - (FOOTNOTE 1) So in original....


As used in this chapter: (1) ''Counsel for the United States'' means - (A) a United States attorney, an assistant United States attorney designated to act on...


(a) Terms. - For purposes of this chapter - (1) the terms ''includes'' and ''including'' are not limiting; (2) the term ''or'' is not exclusive; and (3) the...


(a) Manner of Service. - A complaint, notice, writ, or other process required to be served in an action or proceeding under this chapter shall be served in accordance with the...


This chapter shall not apply with respect to a judgment on a debt if such judgment is entered more than 10 years before the effective date of this chapter. ...


Any affidavit required of the United States by this chapter may be made on information and belief, if reliable and reasonably necessary, establishing with particularity, to...


(a) Authority To Sell. - If at any time during any action or proceeding under this chapter the court determines on its own initiative or upon motion of any party, that any seized...


A district court of the United States may assign its duties in proceedings under this chapter to a United States magistrate judge to the extent not inconsistent with the...


Whenever a United States marshal is authorized to seize property pursuant to this chapter, the United States marshal may designate another person or Federal agency to hold...


(a) Limitation. - The remedies available to the United States under this chapter may be enforced against property which is co-owned by a debtor and any other person only to...


(a) Surcharge Authorized. - In an action or proceeding under subchapter B or C, and subject to subsection (b), the United States is entitled to recover a surcharge of 10 percent...


The United States or the debtor may join as an additional defendant in an action or proceeding under this chapter any person reasonably believed to owe money (including money owed...


The court may at any time on its own initiative or the motion of any interested person, and after such notice as it may require, make an order denying, limiting,...


(a) Election To Exempt Property. - An individual debtor may, in an action or proceeding under this chapter, elect to exempt property listed in either paragraph (1) or, in...


(a) In General. - Except as provided in subsection (b), in an action or proceeding under subchapter B or C, the United States may have discovery regarding the financial condition...


(a) Application. - (1) The United States may, in a proceeding in conjunction with the complaint or at any time after the filing of a civil action on a claim for a debt,...


(a) Property Subject to Attachment. - (1) Any property in the possession, custody, or control of the debtor and in which the debtor has a substantial nonexempt interest,...


(a) Appointment of a Receiver. - If the requirements of section 3101 are satisfied, a court may appoint a receiver for property in which the debtor has a substantial...


(a) In General. - If the requirements of section 3101 are satisfied, a court may issue a writ of garnishment against property (excluding earnings) in which the debtor has...


(a) Property Subject to Sequestration. - (1) Any income from property in which the debtor has a substantial nonexempt interest may be sequestered pursuant to a writ of...


(a) Creation. - A judgment in a civil action shall create a lien on all real property of a judgment debtor on filing a certified copy of the abstract of the judgment in the manner...


(a) Enforcement Remedies. - A judgment may be enforced by any of the remedies set forth in this subchapter. A court may issue other writs pursuant to section 1651 of title 28,...


(a) Property Subject to Execution. - All property in which the judgment debtor has a substantial nonexempt interest shall be subject to levy pursuant to a writ of execution....


(a) Authority To Issue Order. - Subject to subsection (c), if it is shown that the judgment debtor - (1) is receiving or will receive substantial nonexempt ...


(a) In General. - A court may issue a writ of garnishment against property (including nonexempt disposable earnings) in which the debtor has a substantial nonexempt interest and...


A person who pursuant to an execution or order issued under this chapter by a court pays or delivers to the United States, a United States marshal, or a receiver, money or...


As used in this subchapter: (1) ''Affiliate'' means - (A) a person who directly or indirectly owns, controls, or holds with power to vote, 20 percent or more of...


(a) In General. - Except as provided in subsection (c), a debtor is insolvent if the sum of the debtor's debts is greater than all of the debtor's assets at a fair valuation. ...


(a) Transaction. - Value is given for a transfer or an obligation if, in exchange for the transfer or obligation, property is transferred or an antecedent debt is secured...


(a) Debt Arising Before Transfer. - Except as provided in section 3307, a transfer made or obligation incurred by a debtor is fraudulent as to a debt to the United States which...


For the purposes of this subchapter: (1) A transfer is made - (A) with respect to an asset that is real property (other than a fixture, but including the interest...


(a) In General. - In an action or proceeding under this subchapter for relief against a transfer or obligation, the United States, subject to section 3307 and to applicable...


(a) Good Faith Transfer. - A transfer or obligation is not voidable under section 3304(b) with respect to a person who took in good faith and for a reasonably equivalent value...


Except as provided in this subchapter, the principles of law and equity, including the law merchant and the law relating to principal and agent, estoppel, laches,...


For purposes of this chapter - (1) the term ''amateur sports organization'' means - (A) a person or governmental entity that sponsors, organizes, schedules,...


It shall be unlawful for - (1) a governmental entity to sponsor, operate, advertise, promote, license, or authorize by law or compact, or (2) a person to...


A civil action to enjoin a violation of section 3702 may be commenced in an appropriate district court of the United States by the Attorney General of the United States, or by...


(a) Section 3702 shall not apply to - (1) a lottery, sweepstakes, or other betting, gambling, or wagering scheme in operation in a State or other governmental entity,...


(a) Parties. - In an action under section 1346(g) of this title, the defendant shall be the employing office alleged to have committed the violation involved. (b) Jury Trial....


In any proceeding under section 1296 or 1346(g) of this title in which the application of a regulation issued under chapter 5 of title 3 is at issue, the court may review the...


In any proceeding under section 1296 or 1346(g) of this title, if the President, the designee of the President, or the Federal Labor Relations Authority has not issued a regulation...


(a) In General. - An appeal may be taken directly to the Supreme Court of the United States from any interlocutory or final judgment, decree, or order of a court upon...


(a) Attorney's Fees. - If a covered employee, with respect to any claim under chapter 5 of title 3, or a qualified person with a disability, with respect to any claim under...


A judgment, award, or compromise settlement against the United States under this chapter (including any interest and costs) shall be paid - (1) under section 1304 of title...


Except as expressly authorized by this chapter and chapter 5 of title 3, the compliance or noncompliance with the provisions of chapter 5 of title 3, and any action taken pursuant...


For purposes of applying this chapter, the terms ''employing office'' and ''covered employee'' have the meanings given those terms in section 401 of title 3. ...


(a) Assumption of Obligations. - (1) In the case of a transfer of copyright ownership under United States law in a motion picture (as the terms ''transfer of copyright ownership''...




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