] (b) Prior to land disposal, contaminated soil identified by paragraph (a) of this section as needing to comply with LDRs must be treated according to the applicable treatment standards specified in paragraph (c) of this section or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48 applicable to the contaminating listed hazardous waste and/or the applicable characteristic of hazardous waste if the soil is characteristic. The treatment standards specified in paragraph (c) of this section and the Universal Treatment Standards may be modified through a treatment variance approved in accordance with 40 CFR 268.44. (c) Treatment standards for contaminated soils. Prior to land disposal, contaminated soil identified by paragraph (a) of this section as needing to comply with LDRs must be treated according to all the standards specified in this paragraph or according to the Universal Treatment Standards specified in 40 CFR 268.48. (1) All soils. Prior to land disposal, all constituents subject to treatment must be treated as follows: (A) For non-metals except carbon disulfide, cyclohexanone, and methanol, treatment must achieve 90 percent reduction in total constituent concentrations, except as provided by paragraph (c)(1)(C) of this section. (B) For metals and carbon disulfide, cyclohexanone, and methanol, treatment must achieve 90 percent reduction in constituent concentrations as measured in leachate from the treated media (tested according to the TCLP) or 90 percent reduction in total constituent concentrations (when a metal removal treatment technology is used), except as provided by paragraph (c)(1)(C)of this section. (C) When treatment of any constituent subject to treatment to a 90 percent reduction standard would result in a concentration less than 10 times the Universal Treatment Standard for that constituent, treatment to achieve constituent concentrations less than 10 times the universal treatment standard is not required. Universal Treatment Standards are identified in 40 CFR 268.48 Table UTS. (2) Soils that exhibit the characteristic of ignitability, corrosivity or reactivity. In addition to the treatment required by paragraph (c)(1) of this section, prior to land disposal, soils that exhibit the characteristic of ignitability, corrosivity, or reactivity must be treated to eliminate these characteristics. (3) Soils that contain nonanalyzable constituents. In addition to the treatment requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section, prior to land disposal, the following treatment is required for soils that contain nonanalyzable constituents: (A) For soil that contains only analyzable and nonanalyzable organic constituents, treatment of the analyzable organic constituents to the levels specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section; or, (B) For soil that contains only nonanalyzable constituents, treatment by the method(s) specified in Sec. 268.42 for the waste contained in the soil. (d) Constituents subject to treatment. When applying the soil treatment standards in paragraph (c) of this section, constituents subject to treatment are any constituents listed in Sec. 268.48 Table UTS-Universal Treatment Standards that are reasonably expected to be present in any given volume of contaminated soil, except flouride, selenium, sulfides, vanadium, zinc, and that are present at concentrations greater than ten times the universal treatment standard. PCBs are not constituent subject to treatment in any given volume of soil which exhibits the toxicity characteristic solely because of the presence of metals. (e) Management of treatment residuals. Treatment residuals from treating contaminated soil identified by paragraph (a) of this section as needing to comply with LDRs must be managed as follows: (1) Soil residuals are subject to the treatment standards of this section; (2) Non-soil residuals are subject to: (A) For soils contaminated by listed hazardous waste, the RCRA Subtitle C standards applicable to the listed hazardous waste; and (B) For soils that exhibit a characteristic of hazardous waste, if the non-soil residual also exhibits a characteristic of hazardous waste, the [[Page 247]] treatment standards applicable to the characteristic hazardous waste. [63 FR 28751, May 26, 1998, as amended at 64 FR 25417, May 11, 1999; 64 FR 56472, Oct. 20, 1999; 65 FR 81381, Dec. 26, 2000]





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