Title 7--AGRICULTURE
Chapter


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1159] [Page 407] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Sec. 51.1159 Smooth texture. Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit. ...


Sec. 51.1175, Table I; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects which slightly detracts from...


light shade of golden brown caused by rust mite or other means. Lighter shades of discoloration caused by smooth or fairly smooth superficial scars or other means may be allowed...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1162] [Page 407] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Sec. 51.1162 Fairly smooth texture. Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is fairly thin and not coarse for the variety and size of the fruit. ...


Sec. 51.1175, Table I; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which materially detracts from...


common oranges and tangelos means that except for an aggregate area of green color which does not exceed the area of a circle 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter, the...


applied to common oranges means that the characteristic color predominate over the green color on at least two- thirds of the fruit surface, in...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1166] [Page 407] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Sec. 51.1166 Poorly colored. Poorly colored as applied to common oranges means that not more than 25 percent of the surface may be solid dark green color. ...


and tangelos, means that the fruit may be slightly soft, but not bruised; as applied to oranges of the [[Page 408]] Mandarin group (Satsumas, King,...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1168] [Page 408] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Sec. 51.1168 Slightly misshapen. Slightly misshapen means that the fruit is not of the shape characteristic of the variety but is not appreciably elongated or pointed or otherwise deformed. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1169] [Page 408] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Sec. 51.1169 Slightly rough texture. Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not of smooth texture but is not materially ridged, grooved, or wrinkled. ...


described in Sec. 51.1175, Table I; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1171] [Page 408] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Sec. 51.1171 Misshapen. Misshapen means that the fruit is decidedly elongated, pointed or flatsided. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1172] [Page 408] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Sec. 51.1172 Slightly spongy. Slightly spongy means that the fruit is puffy or slightly wilted but not flabby. ...


specific defect described in Sec. 51.1175, Table I; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1174] [Page 408] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Sec. 51.1174 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end. ...


Table I ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ...


juice content of which meets the following requirements, may be designated ``U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A)'': (a) Each lot of fruit shall contain an average of not less than...


of which meets the following requirements, may be designated ``U.S. Grade A Juice'': (a) Each lot of fruit shall contain an average of not less than 4\1/ 2\ gallons...


soluble solids. For determining the grade of juice, the maximum permissible anhydrous citric acid content in relation to corresponding total soluble solids in...


determining of solids, acids and juice content shall be extracted from representative samples as thoroughly as possible with a hand reamer or by such mechanical extractor or...


27, 1977, and further redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981. Grades U.S. Fancy consists of peaches of one variety...


requirements of U.S. No. 1 grade: Provided, That in addition to these requirements, 50 percent, by count, of the peaches in any lot shall have not less than one-fourth of the...


formed, and which are free from decay, growth cracks, cuts which are not healed, worms, worm holes, and free from damage caused by bruises, dirt, or other foreign...


badly misshapen, and which are free from decay, cuts which are not healed, worms, worm holes, and free from serious damage caused by bruises, dirt or other foreign...


the foregoing grades. The term ``unclassified'' is not a grade within the meaning of these standards but is provided as a designation to show that no definite grade has been...


sample inspection, are subject to the following limitations, provided the averages for the entire lot are within the tolerances specified for the grade: (1)...


shall be indicated on the container. (b) When the numerical count is not shown the minimum diameter shall be plainly stamped, stenciled, or otherwise marked on the...


representative in size, color and quality of the contents of the package. [[Page 413]] (b) Peaches packed in U.S. Standard bushel baskets, or...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1218] [Page 413] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Peaches Sec. 51.1218 Mature. Mature means that the peach has reached the stage of growth which will insure a proper completion of the ripening process. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1219] [Page 413] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Peaches Sec. 51.1219 Well formed. Well formed means that the shape of the peach may be slightly irregular but not to the extent that its appearance is materially affected. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1220] [Page 413] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Peaches Sec. 51.1220 Leaf or limb rub injury. Leaf or limb rub injury means that the scarring is not smooth, not light colored, or aggregates more than \1/4\ inch in diameter. ...


quality of the peach. Any one of the following defects, or any combination thereof, the seriousness of which exceeds the maximum allowed for any one defect, shall...


the edible or shipping quality of the peach. Any one of the following defects, or any combination thereof, the seriousness of which exceeds the maximum allowed for any one...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1223] [Page 414] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Peaches Sec. 51.1223 Badly misshapen. Badly misshapen means that the peach is so decidedly deformed that its appearance is seriously affected. ...


11, 1953, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and further redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981. ...


consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the shell which are mature, dry, and free from loose peanut kernels, dirt or other foreign material, pops, paper ends, and...


cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the shell which fail to meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades. The term ``unclassified'' is not a grade within the meaning...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1238] [Page 415] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Sec. 51.1238 Mature. Mature means that the shells are firm and well developed. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1239] [Page 415] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Sec. 51.1239 Pops. Pops means fully developed shells which contain practically no kernels. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1240] [Page 415] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Sec. 51.1240 Paper ends. Paper ends means peanuts which have very soft and/or very thin ends. ...


affects the appearance edible or shipping quality of the individual peanut or the lot as a whole. The following shall be considered as damage: (a) Cracked or...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1242] [Page 415] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Sec. 51.1242 Count per pound. Count per pound means the number of peanuts in a pound. When determining the count per pound, one single kernel peanut shall be counted as one-half peanut. ...


the product in conformity with the requirements of these standards shall not excuse failure to comply with the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. ...


1'' consists of pears of one variety which are mature, but not over-ripe, carefully hand-picked, clean, fairly well formed, free from decay, internal breakdown, scald, freezing...


combination of U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 may be packed. When such a combination is packed, at least 50 percent of the pears in any container shall meet the requirements of U.S. No....


2'' consists of pears of one variety which are mature, but not over-ripe, carefully hand-picked, clean, not seriously misshapen, free from decay, internal breakdown,...


of pears which have not been classified in accordance with any of the foregoing grades. The term ``unclassified'' is not a grade within the meaning of these...


to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than a total of 10 percent of the pears in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of grade:...


(a) The contents of individual packages in the lot, based on sample inspection, are subject to the following limitations, provided the averages for the entire lot are within...


(a) When the numerical count is marked on the container or when pears are packed in a container to weigh 5 pounds or less, percentages shall be calculated on the basis...


Decay, scald, or other deterioration which may have developed on pears after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered as affecting condition and...


count, or the minimum size of the pears packed in closed containers shall be indicated on the package. The number of pears in the box shall not vary more than 3 from the...


shall be packed so that the pears in the shown face shall be reasonably representative in size and quality of the contents of the package. (b) Pears packed in any...


(a) In order to allow for variations incident to proper sizing, not more than 5 percent of the pears in any lot may fail to meet the size requirements: Provided, That when...


that the pear has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. (b) Before a mature pear becomes overripe it will show...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1273] [Page 418] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1273 Overripe. Overripe means dead ripe, very mealy or soft, past commercial utility. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1274] [Page 418] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1274 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1275] [Page 418] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust, spray residue or other foreign material. ...


evidenced by an abnormally deep green color around the calyx, or black spots usually occurring on the one-third of the surface nearest to the calyx, or by an abnormally shallow...


Fairly well formed means that the pear may be slightly abnormal in shape but not to an extent which detracts materially from the appearance of...


any injury or defect which materially affects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality. (a) Hard end shall be considered as damage if the pear shows a...


Seriously misshapen means that the pear is excessively flattened or elongated for the variety, or is constricted or deformed so it will not cut three fairly uniform good quarters, or...


Serious damage means any injury or defect which seriously affects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality. (a) Russeting which in the aggregate exceeds the following shall...


product in conformity with the requirements of these standards shall not excuse failure to comply with the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. ...


No. 1'' consists of pears of one variety which are mature, but not overripe, carefully hand-picked, clean, well formed, free from decay, internal breakdown, scald, freezing...


consists of pears of one variety which are mature, but not over-ripe, carefully hand-picked, clean, fairly well formed, free from decay, internal breakdown, scald, freezing...


U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 may be packed. When such a combination is packed, at least 50 percent of the pears in any container shall meet the requirements of U.S. No. 1....


consists of pears of one variety which are mature, but not overripe, carefully hand-picked, clean, not seriously misshapen, free from decay, internal breakdown, scald, freezing...


of pears which have not been classified in accordance with any of the foregoing grades. The term ``unclassified'' is not a grade within the meaning of these standards,...


to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, not more than a total of 10 percent of the pears in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of grade:...


(a) The contents of individual packages in the lot, based on sample inspection, are subject to the following limitations, provided the averages for the entire lot are within...


(a) When the numerical count is marked in the container or when pears are packed in a container to weigh 5 pounds or less, percentages shall be calculated on the basis...


Decay, scald or other deterioration which may have developed on pears after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered as affecting condition and not...


or the minimum size of the pears packed in closed containers shall be indicated on the package. The number of pears in the box shall not vary more than 3 from the...


be packed so that the pears in the shown face shall be reasonably representative in size and quality of the contents of the package. (b) Pears packed in any...


(a) In order to allow for variations incident to proper sizing, not more than 5 percent of the pears in any lot may fail to meet the size requirements: Provided, That when...


the pear has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. (b) Before a mature pear becomes overripe it will show...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1314] [Page 422] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Winter Pears \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1314 Overripe. Overripe means dead ripe, very mealy or soft, past commercial utility. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1315] [Page 422] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Winter Pears \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1315 Carefully hand-picked. Carefully hand-picked means that the pears do not show evidence of rough handling or of having been on the ground. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1316] [Page 422] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Winter Pears \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust, spray residue or other foreign material. ...


having the shape characteristic of the variety. Slight irregularities of shape from type which do not appreciably detract from the general appearance of the fruit shall...


evidenced by an abnormally deep green color around the calyx, or black spots usually occurring on the one-third of the surface nearest [[Page 423]] to the calyx,...


or defect, that more than slightly affects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality. The following shall be considered as injury: (a) Russeting which exceeds...


formed means that the pear may be slightly abnormal in shape but not to an extent which detracts materially from the appearance of the fruit. Winter Nelis pears...


injury or defect which materially affects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality. (a) Hard end shall be considered as damage if the pear shows an abnormally...


means that the pear is excessively flattened or elongated for the variety, or is constricted or deformed so it will not cut three fairly uniform good quarters, or is...


means any injury or defect which seriously affects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality. (a) Russeting which in the aggregate exceeds the following shall...


27, 1977, and further redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981. [[Page 426]] General All percentages shall...


formed, free from scald, hard end, black end, internal breakdown, decay, worms and worm holes, and from damage caused by broken skins, limbrubs, sprayburn, sunburn, scab,...


seriously deformed, free from scald, hard end, black end, internal breakdown, decay, worms and worm holes, and free from serious damage by any other cause. Unless...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1348] [Page 426] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Pears for Canning Sec. 51.1348 Culls. ``Culls'' are pears which do not meet the requirements of either of the foregoing grades. Size ...


stated in terms of minimum diameter or minimum and maximum diameters. Diameters shall be specified in inches and not less than eighth-inch fractions thereof. In addition, size...


the percentages of U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 quality, culls and off-size in a lot of pears; for example, when determining compliance with a grower-processor contract. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1351] [Page 426] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Pears for Canning Sec. 51.1351 Mature. Mature means that the pear has reached the stage of maturity which will insure the proper completion of the ripening process. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1352] [Page 426] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Pears for Canning Sec. 51.1352 Handpicked. Handpicked means that the pears do not show evidence of having been on the ground. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1353] [Page 426] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Pears for Canning Sec. 51.1353 Firm. Firm means that the pear is fairly solid and yields only very slightly to moderate pressure, and is not wilted, shriveled, rubbery or flabby. ...


that after paring, cutting in halves, [[Page 427]] and coring, each half of the pear shall be well formed. Bartlett pears shall have at least a fairly well...


fruit. After paring, cutting in halves, and coring, each half of the pear shall be well formed or the pear is considered damaged. Pears showing surface blemishes shall be...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1356] [Page 427] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Pears for Canning Sec. 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed ``rat tails''), or may be misshapen or slightly rough. Such pears do not ripen properly for ordinary canning use. ...


loss during the usual commercial preparation for use of over 20 percent, by weight, of the pear in excess of that which would occur if the pear were well formed. Round or...


commercial preparation for use without a loss of over 20 percent, by weight, of the pear in excess of that which would occur if the pear were...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1359] [Page 427] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Pears for Canning Sec. 51.1359 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension of the pear taken at right angles to a line running from the stem to the blossom end. ...


of the product in conformity with the requirements of these standards shall not excuse failure to comply with the provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or...


for this grade are the same as for U.S. No. 1 except for: (a) No requirement for uniformity of color of shells; and, (b) Increased tolerances for defects see...


Size of pecans may be specified in connection with the grade in accordance with one of the following classifications. To meet the requirements for any one of...


(a) The skin color of pecan kernels may be described in terms of the color classifications provided in this section. When the color of kernels in a lot generally conforms...


In order to allow the variations incident to proper grading and handling in each of the foregoing grades, the following tolerances are provided as specified: (a) U.S. No....


Individual 100-count samples shall have not more than one and one- half times a specified tolerance of 5 percent or more and not more than double a tolerance of less than...


Each sample shall consist of 100 pecans. The individual sample shall be drawn at random from a sufficient number of packages to form a 100- count composite...


Fairly uniform in color means that the shells do not show sufficient variation in color to materially detract from the general appearance of...


Loose extraneous or foreign material means loose hulls, empty broken shells, or any substance other than pecans in the shell or...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1409] [Page 429] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Pecans in the Shell \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1409 Well developed. Well developed means that the kernel has a large amount of meat in proportion to its width and length (see Figure 1). ...


Fairly well developed means that the kernel has at least a moderate amount of meat in proportion to its width and length. Shriveling and hollowness shall be considered only to...


Poorly developed means that the kernel has a small amount of meat in proportion to its width and length (see Figure 1). [[Page 430]] [GRAPHIC] [TIFF...


means that the kernel separates freely from the shell, breaks cleanly when bent, without splintering, shattering, or loosening the skin; and the kernel appears to be in...


any specific defect described in this section; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, or any other defect, or any combination of defects,...


Serious damage means any specific defect described in this section; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, or any other defect, or any combination of...


Inedible kernels means that the kernel or pieces of kernels are rancid, moldy, decayed, injured by insects or otherwise unsuitable for human consumption. ...


The determinations set forth herein are not requirements of these standards. They may be performed upon request in connection with the grade determination or as a...


42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and further redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981. Grades ``U.S. No. 1 Halves'' consists...


Halves except: (a) For size: (1) At least 50 percent, by weight, are half-kernels; (2) Both halves and pieces will not pass through a \5/16\-inch round...


(a) For quality: (1) No requirement for uniformity of color; and, (b) For size: (1) No requirement for percentage of half-kernels; (2) Conform...


(a) For quality: (1) No requirement for uniformity of color; and, (2) Increased tolerances for defects (see Sec. 51.1439); and, (b) For size: ...


1 Halves and Pieces except: (a) For quality: (1) No requirement for uniformity of color; and, (2) Increased tolerances for defects. (See...


Pieces except for: (a) Increased tolerances for defects. (See Sec. 51.1439.) [[Page 433]] ...


provided in this section. When the color of kernels in a lot generally conforms to the ``light'' or ``light amber'' classification, that color classification may...


one of the size classifications shown in Table I: Table I ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ...


one of the size classifications shown in Table II. Table II ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ...


each of the foregoing grades, the following tolerances, by weight, are provided as specified: (a) U.S. No. 1 Halves, U.S. No. 1 Halves and Pieces, and U.S. No. 1...


of a composite sample drawn at random from containers in various locations in the lot. However, any identifiable container or number of containers in which the pecans...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1441] [Page 435] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Sec. 51.1441 Half-kernel. Half-kernel means one of the separated halves of an entire pecan kernel with not more than one-eighth of its original volume missing, exclusive of the portion which formerly connected the two halves of the kernel. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1442] [Page 435] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Sec. 51.1442 Piece. Piece means a portion of a kernel which is less than seven-eighths of a half-kernel, but which will not pass through a round opening two- sixteenths inch in diameter. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1443] [Page 435] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Sec. 51.1443 Particles and dust. Particles and dust means, for all size designations except ``midget pieces'' and ``granules,'' fragments of kernels which will pass through a round opening two-sixteenths inch in diameter. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1444] [Page 435] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Sec. 51.1444 Well dried. Well dried means that the portion of kernel is firm and crisp, not pliable or leathery. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1445] [Page 435] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Sec. 51.1445 Fairly well developed. Fairly well developed means that the kernel has at least a moderate amount of meat in proportion to its width and length. (See Figure 1.) ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1446] [Page 435] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Sec. 51.1446 Poorly developed. Poorly developed means that the kernel has a small amount of meat in proportion to its width and length. (See Figure 1.) ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1447] [Page 435] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Sec. 51.1447 Fairly uniform in color. Fairly uniform in color means that 90 percent or more of the kernels in the lot have skin color within the range of one or two color classifications. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1448] [Page 435] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pecans Sec. 51.1448 Fairly uniform in size. Fairly uniform in size means that, in a representative sample of 100 halves, the 10 smallest halves weigh not less than one-half as much as the 10 largest halves. ...


of any one of these defects, or any other defect, or any combination of defects, which materially detracts from the appearance or the edible or marketing quality of...


equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, or any other defect, or any combination of defects, which seriously detracts from the appearance or the edible or...


Millimeters Inches...


U.S. Fancy. \1\ Packing of the product in conformity with the requirements of these standards shall not excuse failure to comply with the provisions of...


U.S. No. 1. ``U.S. No. 1'' consists of plums or prunes of one variety which are well formed, clean, mature but not overripe or soft or shriveled; which are...


U.S. Combination. ``U.S. Combination'' consists of a combination of U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 plums or prunes: Provided, That at least 75 percent, by...


U.S. No. 2. ``U.S. No. 2'' consists of plums, or prunes of one variety which are not badly misshapen, which are clean, mature but not overripe or soft...


Unclassified. ``Unclassified'' consists of plums or prunes which have not been classified in accordance with any of the foregoing grades. The...


51.1525 Tolerances. In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling in each of the foregoing grades, the following tolerances, by...


Application of tolerances. The contents of individual packages in the lot, based on sample inspection, are subject to the following limitations: (a)...


51.1527 Standard pack. (a) Packing. (1) All packages shall be tightly packed or well filled, according to the approved and recognized methods. (2) The plums...


Well formed. Well formed means that the fruit has the shape characteristic of the variety. Doubles shall not be considered...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1529] [Page 439] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1529 Clean. Clean means that the fruit is practically free from dirt and other foreign material. ...


Mature. Mature means that the fruit has reached the stage of maturity which will insure a proper completion of the...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1531] [Page 439] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Fresh Plums and Prunes \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1531 Sunscald. Sunscald means injury caused by the sun in which softening or collapse of the flesh is apparent. ...


51.1532 Damage. Damage means any specific defect defined in this section; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect,...


Well colored. Well colored, as applied to Italian type prunes, means that 95 percent of the surface of the prune is purple...


Fairly well colored. Fairly well colored, as applied to Italian type prunes, means that at least three-fourths of the surface of the prune is...


Badly misshapen. Badly misshapen means that the fruit is so malformed or rough that its appearance is seriously affected. Doubles shall be considered...


Serious damage. Serious damage means any specific defect defined in this section; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any...


51.1537 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from the stem to blossom end of the fruit. [38 FR 13321, May...


Metric conversion table. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ...


of the product in conformity with the requirements of these standards shall not excuse failure to comply with the provisions of the Federal Food and Drug Cosmetic Act or...


1'' consists of potatoes which meet the following requirements: (a) Similar varietal characteristics; (b) Firm; (c) Fairly clean;...


consists of potatoes which meet the requirements of U.S. No. 1 grade except for the following: (a) Free from serious damage caused by: (1) Dirt or other...


2'' consists of potatoes which meet the following requirements: (a) Similar varietal characteristics; (b) Not seriously misshapen; (c) Free from: ...


of potatoes which have not been classified in accordance with any of the foregoing grades. The term ``unclassified'' is not a grade within the meaning of...


or minimum and maximum sizes may be specified in connection with the grade in terms of diameter or weight of the individual potato, or in accordance with one of the...


for variations incident to proper grading and handling in each of the foregoing grades, the following tolerances by weight or equivalent basis, are provided as specified. ...


Individual samples shall have not more than double the tolerances specified, except that at least one defective and one off-size potato may be permitted in any sample:...


Individual samples shall consist of at least 20 pounds. When individual packages contain at least 20 pounds, each individual sample is drawn from one package;...


definitions provide a basis for describing lots of potatoes as to the degree of skinning whenever description may be appropriate: (1) ``Practically no skinning''...


Similar varietal characteristics means that the potatoes in any lot have the same general shape, color and character of skin, and color...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1551] [Page 445] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1551 Firm. Firm means that the potato is not shriveled or flabby. ...


at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are practically free from dirt or staining and practically no loose dirt or other foreign matter is present in...


means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are reasonably free from dirt or staining and not more than a slight amount of loose dirt or foreign matter is present...


the skins of the potatoes are generally firmly set and not more than 5 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-tenth of the skin missing...


Fairly well matured means that the skins of the potatoes are generally fairly firmly set and not more than 10 percent of the potatoes in the lot have more than one-fourth of the...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1556] [Page 445] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1556 Well shaped. Well shaped means that the potato has the normal shape for the variety. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1557] [Page 445] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1557 Fairly well shaped. Fairly well shaped means that the potato is not materially pointed, dumb bell-shaped or otherwise materially deformed. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1558] [Page 445] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1558 Seriously misshapen. Seriously misshapen means that the potato is seriously pointed, dumbell-shaped or otherwise badly deformed. ...


defect, or any combination of defects, which more than slightly detracts from the edible or marketing quality, or the internal or external appearance of the potato, or any...


defect, or any combination of defects, which materially detracts from the edible or marketing quality, or the internal or external appearance of the potato, or any external...


means any defect, or any combination of defects, which seriously detracts from the edible or marketing quality, or the internal or external appearance of the potato, or...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1562] [Page 445] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes \1 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sec. 51.1562 Freezing. Freezing means that the potato is frozen or shows evidence of having been frozen. ...


Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following...


External defects are defects which can be detected externally. However, cutting may be required to determine the extent of the injury. Some external defects are listed in...


Internal defects are defects which cannot be detected without cutting the potato. Some internal defects are listed in Table IV. Table...


Millimeters Inches...


FR 7132, Nov. 11, 1953, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and further redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981. ...


Potatoes of each of these grades shall meet the requirements for U.S. Grade A Small; U.S. Grade A Medium; U.S. Grade A Medium to Large; and U.S. Grade A Large, except for the...


shall also meet the requirements for minimum and maximum diameter or weight, and the tolerances as specified for the various grades in the table appearing in this...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1578] [Page 448] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Sec. 51.1578 Off-Grade potatoes. Potatoes which fail to meet the requirements of any of the foregoing grades shall be Off-Grade potatoes. Application of Tolerances ...


containers in the lot are subject to the following limitations: Provided, That the averages for the entire lot are within the tolerances specified for the grade: ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1580] [Page 448] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Sec. 51.1580 Fairly well shaped. Fairly well shaped means that the appearance of the individual potato or the general appearance of the potatoes in the container is not materially injured by pointed, dumbbell-shaped or otherwise ill-formed potatoes. ...


the container are reasonably free from dirt or other foreign matter, and that individual potatoes are not materially caked with dirt or materially...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1582] [Page 449] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Sec. 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury, scald, or other injury. ...


the appearance of the individual potato or the general appearance of the potatoes in the container, or which cannot be removed without a loss of more than 5 percent of the...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1584] [Page 449] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Sec. 51.1584 Internal discoloration. Internal discoloration means discoloration such as is caused by net necrosis or any other type of necrosis, stem-end browning, internal brown spot, or other similar types of discoloration not visible externally. ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1585] [Page 449] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Sec. 51.1585 Mature. Mature means that the outer skin (epidermis) does not loosen or ``feather'' readily during the ordinary methods of handling. ...


shipping quality, or the appearance of the individual potato or the general appearance of the potatoes in the container, or which cannot be removed without a loss of more than...


axis shall be used without regard to the position of the stem (rhizome). Subpart--United States Standards for Grades of Florida Tangerines Source: 61 FR...


(a) Basic requirements: (1) Discoloration: Not more than one-tenth of the surface, in the aggregate, may be affected by discoloration. (See Sec. 51.1828.); (2) Firm; ...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1811] [Page 450] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Sec. 51.1811 U.S. No. 1 Bright. The requirements for this grade are the same as for U.S. No. 1 except that fruit shall have not more than one-fifth of its surface, in the aggregate, affected by discoloration. For tolerances see Sec. 51.1820. ...


(a) Basic requirements: (1) Discoloration: Not more than one-third of the surface, in the aggregate, may be affected by discoloration. (See Sec. 51.1828.); (2)...


more than 30 percent, by count, of the fruit shall have than more one-third of their surface, in the aggregate, affected by discoloration. For tolerances see...


least 30 percent, by count, of the fruit shall have more than one-third of their surface, in the aggregate, affected by discoloration. The predominating discoloration on each...


least 30 percent, by count, of the fruit shall have more than one-third of their surface, in the aggregate, affected by any type of discoloration. For tolerances see...


[Code of Federal Regulations] [Title 7, Volume 2] [Revised as of January 1, 2004] From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access [CITE: 7CFR51.1816] [Page 451] TITLE 7--AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PART 51--FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER Subpart--United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Sec. 51.1816 U.S. No. 2 Bright. The requirements for this grade are the same as for U.S. No. 2 except that fruit shall have not more than one-fifth of its surface, in the aggregate, affected by discoloration. For tolerances see Sec. 51.1820. ...


(a) Basic requirements: (1) Discoloration: Not more than one-half of the surface, in the aggregate, may be affected by discoloration. (See Sec. 51.1828.); (2)...


least 10 percent of the fruit shall have more than one- half of their surface, in the aggregate, affected by any type of discoloration. For tolerances see...


(a) Basic requirements: (1) Mature; (2) Not flabby; and (3) Not seriously lumpy. (b) Free from: (1) Decay; (2) Unhealed skin breaks; and ...


the foregoing grades, the following tolerances, by count, based on a minimum 25 count sample, are provided as specified: (a) Defects. (1) U.S. Fancy, U.S. No. 1...


in Sec. 51.1820. Individual samples shall have not more than one and one-half times a specified tolerance of 10 percent or more, and not more than double a...


approved and recognized methods. (b) ``Fairly uniform in size'' means that not more than 10 percent of the tangerines per sample may vary more than one-half inch...




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